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Задания 10. Понимание основного содержания текста

Установите соответствие между заголовками 1–8 и текстами A–G. Запишите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.


1. Places to stay in

2. Arts and culture

3. New country image

4. Going out

5. Different landscapes

6. Transport system

7. National languages

8. Eating out



A. Belgium has always had a lot more than the faceless administrative buildings that you can see in the outskirts of its capital, Brussels. A number of beautiful historic cities and Brussels itself offer impressive architecture, lively nightlife, first-rate restaurants and numerous other attractions for visitors. Today, the old-fashioned idea of ‘boring Belgium’ has been well and truly forgotten, as more and more people discover its very individual charms for themselves.


B. Nature in Belgium is varied. The rivers and hills of the Ardennes in the southeast contrast sharply with the rolling plains which make up much of the northern and western countryside. The most notable features are the great forest near the frontier with Germany and Luxembourg and the wide, sandy beaches of the northern coast.


C. It is easy both to enter and to travel around pocket- sized Belgium which is divided into the Dutchspeaking north and the French-speaking south. Officially the Belgians speak Dutch, French and German. Dutch is slightly more widely spoken than French, and German is spoken the least. The Belgians, living in the north, will often prefer to answer visitors in English rather than French, even if the visitor’s French is good.


D. Belgium has a wide range of hotels from 5-star luxury to small family pensions and inns. In some regions of the country, farm holidays are available. There visitors can (for a small cost) participate in the daily work of the farm. There are plenty of opportunities to rent furnished villas, flats, rooms, or bungalows for a holiday period. These holiday houses and flats are comfortable and well-equipped.


E. The Belgian style of cooking is similar to French, based on meat and seafood. Each region in Belgium has its own special dish. Butter, cream, beer and wine are generously used in cooking. The Belgians are keen on their food, and the country is very well supplied with excellent restaurants to suit all budgets. The perfect evening out here involves a delicious meal, and the restaurants and cafes are busy at all times of the week.


F. As well as being one of the best cities in the world for eating out (both for its high quality and range), Brussels has a very active and varied nightlife. It has 10 theatres which produce plays in both Dutch and French. There are also dozens of cinemas, numerous discos and many night-time cafes in Brussels. Elsewhere, the nightlife choices depend on the size of the town, but there is no shortage of fun to be had in any of the major cities.


G. There is a good system of underground trains, trams and buses in all the major towns and cities. In addition, Belgium’s waterways offer a pleasant way to enjoy the country. Visitors can take a one-hour cruise around the canals of Bruges (sometimes described as the Venice of the North) or an extended cruise along the rivers and canals linking the major cities of Belgium and the Netherlands.






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1. Places to stay in

2. Public transport

3. Cultural differences

4. Nightlife

5. Camping holidays

6. Contacts with neighbours

7. Different landscapes

8. Eating out



A. Sweden is a land of contrast, from the Danish influence of the southwest to the Laplanders wandering freely with their reindeer in the wild Arctic north. And while Sweden in cities is stylish and modern, the countryside offers many simpler pleasures for those who look for peace and calm. The land and its people have an air of reserved calm, and still the world’s best-selling pop group Abba, which used to attract crowds of hysterical fans, come from Sweden.


B. Historically, Sweden has an interesting story. Its dealings with the outside world began, in fact, during Viking times, when in addition to the well- known surprise attacks of the nearby lands, there was much trading around the Baltic, mostly in furs and weapons. Swedish connections with the other Scandinavian countries, Norway and Denmark, have been strong since the Middle Ages. The monarchies of all three are still closely linked.


C. Sweden’s scenery has a gentler charm than that of neighbouring Norway’s rocky coast. Much of Sweden is forested, and there are thousands lakes, notably large pools near the capital, Stockholm. The lakeside resort in the centre of Sweden is popular with Scandinavians, but most visitors prefer first the Baltic islands. The largest island, Gotland, with its ruined medieval churches, is a particular attraction.


D. Sweden boasts a good range of hotels, covering the full spectrum of prices and standards. Many of them offer discounts in summer and at weekends during the winter. In addition, working farms throughout Sweden offer accommodation, either in the main farmhouse or in a cottage nearby. Forest cabins and chalets are also available throughout the country, generally set in beautiful surroundings, near lakes, in quiet forest glades or on an island in some remote place.


E. Living in a tent or caravan with your family or friends at weekends and on holiday is extremely popular in Sweden and there is a fantastic variety of special places. Most are located on a lakeside or by the sea with free bathing facilities close at hand. There are over 600 campsites in the country. It is often possible to rent boats or bicycles, play mini-golf or tennis, ride a horse or relax in a sauna. It is also possible to camp in areas away from other houses.


F. Swedes like plain meals, simply prepared from the freshest ingredients. As a country with a sea coast and many freshwater lakes, fish dishes are found on all hotel or restaurant menus. Top-class restaurants in Sweden are usually fairly expensive, but even the smallest towns have reasonably priced self-service restaurants and grill bars. Many restaurants all over Sweden offer a special dish of the day at a reduced price that includes main course, salad, soft drink and coffee.


G. Stockholm has a variety of pubs, cafes, clubs, restaurants, cinemas and theatres but in the country evenings tend to be very calm and peaceful. From August to June the Royal Ballet performs in Stockholm. Music and theatre productions take place in many cities during the summer in the open air. Outside Stockholm in the 18th-century palace there are performances of 18th-century opera very popular with tourists.






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1. Education

2. Way of life

3. Public transport

4. Geography

5. Places to stay in

6. Favourite food

7. Hot spots for kids

8. Nightlife



A. Denmark, a small kingdom in northern Europe, has a lot of interesting places for tourists with children. For example, Legoland, a theme park, has become the largest tourist attraction in Denmark outside its capital Copenhagen. And Copenhagen itself is world famous for its Tivoli Gardens amusement park, which opened in 1843 in the heart of the city. The park offers ballet and circus performances, restaurants, concerts, and fireworks displays.


B. Denmark is the smallest Scandinavian country, consisting of the Jutland peninsula, north of Germany, and over 400 islands of various sizes, some inhabited and linked to the mainland by ferry or bridge. Throughout the country, low hills provide a constant change of attractive views; there are also cool and shady forests of beech trees, large areas of open land covered with rough grass, a beautiful lake district, sand dunes and white cliffs on the coast.


C. More than four-fifths of all Danes live in towns. The main cities represent a combination of medieval buildings, such as castles and cathedrals, and modern office buildings and homes. Denmark’s high standard of living and wide-ranging social services guarantee that the cities have no poor districts. Most people in the cities live in flats. But in the suburbs many also live in single-family houses.


D. Denmark’s fine beaches attract many visitors, and there are hotels and pensions in all major seaside resorts. Besides, excellent inns are to be found all over the country. Some are small and only serve local travellers, but others are adapted to the tourist and have established reputations for both international dishes and local specialities. There are also private rooms to let, usually for one night, and chalets all over Denmark.


E. There is a wide selection of places to go out in the evening, particularly in Copenhagen. Jazz and dance clubs in the capital city are top quality and world-famous performers appear regularly. There are numerous cafes, beer gardens and speciality beer bars. Entertainment available includes opera at the recently opened opera house in Copenhagen, ballet and theatre at a number of places in the larger cities, and live music of all kinds.


F. Most Danes eat four meals a day — breakfast, lunch, dinner, and a late-evening supper. Breakfast generally consists of cereal, cheese, or eggs. Dinner, which includes fish or meat, is usually the only hot meal. A traditional Danish dinner consists of roast duckling stuffed with apples, served with red cabbage and boiled potatoes. The other Danish meals consist mostly of sandwiches.


G. Almost all adult Danes can read and write. Danish law requires children to attend nine years of school. Primary school consists of the first seven grades, and secondary school lasts from three to five years. A five-year secondary school student can enter a university. Denmark has three universities. The University of Copenhagen is the oldest and largest. It was founded in 1479 and has about 24,000 students.







Установите соответствие между заголовками 1–8 и текстами A–G. Запишите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.


1. Education: the Way to the Top

2. From Agony to Love

3. Teaching to Learn

4. Learning That Never Stops

5. Things Worth Learning

6. The Right Word Can Bring Changes

7. What My Father Taught Me

8. The Power of Numbers


A. Education has the power to transform a person’s life. I am the living example of this. When I was on the streets, I thought I was not good at anything but I wrote a poem, and it got published. I went back to school to learn. I have learned the benefit of research and reading, of debate and listening. One day soon a group of fresh-faced college students will call me professor.


B. Language has the capacity to change the world and the way we live in it. People are often afraid to call things by their direct names, use taboos not to notice dangerous tendencies. Freedom begins with naming things. This has to happen in spite of political climates, careers being won or lost, and the fear of being criticized. After Helen Caldicott used the word ‘nuclear arms race’ an anti-nuclear movement appeared.


C. I never wanted to be a teacher. Yet years later, I find myself teaching high school English. I consider my job to be one of the most important aspects of my life, still I do not teach for the love of teaching. I am a teacher because I love to learn, and I have come to realize that the best way to learn is to teach.


D. One day my sister and I got one and the same homework. My sister finished the task in 2 minutes and went off to play. But I could not do it, so I went into my sister’s room and quickly copied her work. But there was one small problem: my father caught me. He didn’t punish me, but explained that cheating makes people feel helpless. And then I was left feeling guilty for cheating.


E. Lifelong learning does not mean spending all my time reading. It is equally important to get the habit of asking such questions as ‘what don’t I know about this topic, or subject?’, ‘what can I learn from this moment or person?’, and ‘what more do I need to learn?’ regardless of where I am, who I am talking to, or what I am doing.


F. Math has always been something that I am good at. Mathematics attracts me because of its stability. It has logic; it is dependable and never changes. There might be some additions to the area of mathematics, but once mathematics is created, it is set in stone. We would not be able to check emails or play videogames without the computer solving complex algorithms.


G. When my high school English teacher asked us to read Shakespeare, I thought it was boring and too difficult. I agonized over the syntax — I had never read anything like this. But now I am a Shakespeare professor, and enjoy teaching Hamlet every semester. Each time I re-read the play, I find and learn something new for myself.






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1. Not Just Fun

2. Running For Heart and Mind

3. United By The Game

4. I Want To Be A Coach

5. Team Work in Sport and Life

6. Next Year We Win

7. Learning From Father

8. School between Practices


A. I believe playing sports is more than an activity to fill your day, it can teach important life lessons. When I was a child, my dad spent a lot of time teaching me how to play different sports. He told me that if I can succeed in sports, I can succeed at anything in life. He used to say, ‘It’s not about how good you become. It’s about working hard to get where you want to be.’


B. I like bicycles. Group rides help me to get new skills and make new friends. I try to apply the tactics of group riding to team work in the real world. In the perfect group ride, each rider takes a turn leading the pack, while the others enjoy the benefits of drafting. I think this way of working is a great method for approaching a group task anywhere.


C. I believe in the power of running. Running should not be a battle for your body but rather a rest for your mind. I felt this last fall, when I was running in the park. Suddenly I felt as if I could have run forever, as if I could use running as a source of therapy for my body. Running allows the body to release different types of stress and even change our understanding of life.


D. My father coached basketball every day of his life, and I was right there with him in the gym watching him work his magic. Basketball appears entertaining and exciting. But the path to success is not simple. My father always told me, ‘Nothing is free.’ I took this advice and ran with it. I truly believe that only practice and determination lead to success.


E. Baseball is so much more than a sport. One of the powers of baseball is that it brings people together. It unites fans of all ages, genders, and nationalities. No matter who you are, you can be a baseball fan. My mom and I have one unspoken rule: no matter what has been going on before, no fighting at the game.


F. I believe that you must always be loyal to the sport teams you support. The teams I follow in the United States generally lose many more than they win. The start of each season brings dreams of victory in baseball, basketball or football, dreams that fade away soon. But then there is always next year. It will be our year for sure.


G. I was determined to join the swim team. I knew I would get my strengths and learn my weaknesses there. Waking up early for 6:30 a.m. practices is what swim team is all about, as it helps us get into state. On a long school day you think about the practice in the pool after school. You want to hear the crowd cheering you, telling you that you have to do more than your best.






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1. Travel memories

2. Animal lover magazine

3. Travel to stars

4. Star dreams

5. Popular hobby

6. Family magazine

7. People and nature

8. Animals in danger


A. Most people who spend a holiday travelling take a camera with them and photograph anything that interests them — sights of a city, views of mountains, lakes, waterfalls, men and women, children, ruins of ancient buildings, and even birds and animals. Later looking through their albums they will remember the happy time they have had, the islands, countries and cities they have seen.


B. Of course, different people dream of different things. Someone wishes a calm and quiet life; others imagine their life as a never-ending adventure. The majority dream of something concrete: a villa in some warm place, an account in a Swiss bank, a splendid car... It’s interesting to know what the dreams of people who already have all this are. Celebrities, as we know, never hide their unusual hobbies, and often shock us with their extravagant behaviour.


C. It is Junior Baseball Magazine’s mission to provide information that enhances the youth baseball experience for the entire family. The player improves his skills and is more successful. The family enjoys the activity more and shares this precious time in their life. Junior Baseball emphasizes good sportsmanship, safety, physical fitness and wholesome family values.


D. The seas are in danger. They are filled with poison like industrial, nuclear and chemical waste. The Mediterranean Sea is already nearly dead; the North Sea is following it. The Aral Sea is on the brink of extinction. If nothing is done about it, one day nothing will be able to live in the seas. Every ten minutes one species of animal, plant or insect dies out forever.


E. Lots of people all over the world enjoy collecting stamps. Stamps are like little pictures. Very often they show the flowers or the trees which grow in this or that country, or they can show different kinds of transport of the country. Stamps may also have portraits of famous people on them. Some stamps show art work from the history of the country.


F. “Friend” is the title of my favourite magazine. It consists of 70 pages, with lots of colourful and bright pictures and provides interesting and useful information for people who love animals. The magazine includes numerous articles devoted to various topics connected with domestic animals, ways to take care of them, pet food, animal health and many other topics crucial for any animal lover. 


G. People are beginning to realize that environmental problems are not just somebody else’s. Many people join and support various international organizations and green parties. Human life is the most important, and polluted air, poisoned water, wastelands, noise, smoke, gas, exhaust all influence not only nature but people themselves. Everything should be done to improve ecological conditions on our planet.






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1. Perfect for a quiet holiday

2. Land of nature wonders

3. Bad for animals

4. A visit to the zoo

5. Perfect for an active holiday

6. Difficult start

7. New perspectives

8. New rules to follow


A. The mountains of Scotland (we call them the Highlands) are a wild and beautiful part of Europe. A golden eagle flies over the mountains. A deer walks through the silence of the forest. Salmon and trout swim in the clean, pure water of the rivers. Some say that not only fish swim in the deep water of Loch Ness. Speak to the people living by the Loch. Each person has a story of the monster, and some have photographs.


B. Tresco is a beautiful island with no cars, crowds or noise — just flowers, birds, long sandy beaches and the Tresco Abbey Garden. John and Wendy Pyatt welcome you to the Island Hotel, famous for delicious food, comfort and brilliant service. You will appreciate superb accommodation, free saunas and the indoor swimming pool.


C. The Camel and Wildlife Safari is a unique mixture of the traditional and modern. Kenya’s countryside suits the Safari purposes exceptionally well. Tourists will have a chance to explore the bush country near Samburu, to travel on a camel back or to sleep out under the stars. Modern safari vehicles are always available for those who prefer comfort.


D. Arrival can be the hardest part of a trip. It is late, you are road-weary, and everything is new and strange. You need an affordable place to sleep, something to eat and drink, and probably a way to get around. But in general, it’s a wonderful trip, full of wonderful and unusual places. Whether it is the first stop on a trip or the fifth city visited, every traveller feels a little overwhelmed stepping onto a new street in a new city.


E. No zoo has enough money to provide basic habitats or environments for all the species they keep. Most animals are put in a totally artificial environment, isolated from everything they would meet in their natural habitat. Many will agree that this isolation is harmful to the most of zoo inhabitants, it can even amount to cruelty.


F. A new London Zoo Project is a ten year project to secure the future for the Zoo and for many endangered animals. The plan has been devised by both animal and business experts to provide world-leading accommodation for all our animals, to more fully engage and inform people about conservation issues, to redesign certain aspects of Zoo layout.


G. Leave-no-trace camping is an increasingly popular approach to travel in wilderness areas. As the term suggests, the goal is for the camper to leave as little impact as possible on the place he is visiting. One of its mottos is “Take nothing but pictures. Leave nothing but footprints.” Its simplest and most fundamental rule is: pack it in, pack it out, but it goes beyond that.






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1. The House of Commons

2. Parliamentary Procedure

3. The House of Lords

4. Westminster

5. The System of Government

6. Parliamentary Committees

7. Whitehall

8. The Crown


A. Her Majesty’s Government, in spite of its name, derives its authority and power from its party representation in Parliament. Parliament is housed in the Palace of Westminster, once a home of the monarchy. Like the monarchy, Parliament is an ancient institution, dating from the middle of the thirteenth century. Parliament is the seat of British democracy, but it is perhaps valuable to remember that while the House of Lords was created in order to provide a council of the nobility for the king, the Commons were summoned originally in order to provide the king with money.


B. The reigning monarch is not only head of state but symbol of the unity of the nation. The monarchy is Britain’s oldest secular institution, its continuity for over a thousand years broken only once by a republic that lasted a mere eleven years (1649-60). The monarchy is hereditary, the succession passing automatically to the oldest male child, or in the absence of males to the oldest female offspring of the monarch. In law the monarch is head of the executive and of the judiciary, head of the Church of England, and commander-in-chief of the armed forces.


C. The dynamic power of Parliament lies in its lower chamber. Of its 650 members, 523 represent constituencies in England, 38 in Wales, 72 in Scotland and 17 in Northern Ireland. There are only seats in the Commons debating chamber for 370 members, but except on matters of great interest, it is unusual for all members to be present at any one time. Many MPs find themselves in other rooms of the Commons, participating in a variety of committees and meetings necessary for an effective parliamentary process.


D. Britain is a democracy, yet its people are not, as one might expect in a democracy, constitutionally in control of the state. The constitutional situation is an apparently contradictory one. As a result of a historical process the people of Britain are subjects of the Crown, accepting the Queen as the head of the state. Yet even the Queen is not sovereign in any substantial sense since she receives her authority from Parliament, and is subject to its direction in almost all matters. This curious situation came about as a result of a long struggle for power between the Crown and Parliament during the sixteenth and the seventeenth centuries.


E. Her Majesty’s Government governs in the name of the Queen, and its hub, Downing Street, lies in Whitehall, a short walk from Parliament. Following a general election, the Queen invites the leader of the majority party represented in the Commons, to form a government on her behalf. Government ministers are invariably members of the House of Commons, but infrequently members of the House of Lords are appointed. All government members continue to represent “constituencies” which elected them.


F. Each parliamentary session begins with the “State Opening of Parliament”, a ceremonial occasion in which the Queen proceeds from Buckingham Palace to the Palace of Westminster where she delivers the Queen’s Speech from her throne in the House of Lords. Her speech is drafted by her government, and describes what the government intends to implement during the forthcoming session. Leading members of the Commons may hear the speech from the far end of the chamber, but are not allowed to enter the House of Lords.


G. The upper chamber of Parliament is not democratic in any sense at all. It consists of four categories of peer. The majority are hereditary peers, a total of almost 800, but of whom only about half take an active interest in the affairs of the state. A smaller number, between 350 and 400, are “life” peers – an idea introduced in 1958 to elevate to the peerage certain people who rendered political or public service to the nation. The purpose was not only to honour but also to enhance the quality of business done in the Lords.




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A. It’s strange that the differences in Britain itself are greater than those between Britain and other English-speaking countries. For a Londoner, it’s easier to understand an American than a Cockney. Cockney has a pronunciation, accent and vocabulary unlike any other dialect. Cockney speech is famous for its rhyming slang. A word is replaced by a phrase or a person’s name which rhymes with it.


B. Other languages absorb English words too, often giving them new forms and meanings. So many Japanese, French, Spanish and Germans mix English words with their mother tongues that the resulting hybrids are called Japlish, Franglais, Spanglish and Denglish, In Japanese, for example, there is a verb Makudonaru, to eat at McDonald’s.


C. Have you ever wondered why the English language has different words for animals and meat? When William the Conqueror invaded England in 1066, French became the official language of the court. The English would look after the animals and cook the meat, still calling the animals pig, sheep and cow. The Normans, when they saw the cooked meat arrive at their table, would use French words – pork, mutton and beef.


D. English is mixing with other languages around the world. It’s probably the biggest borrower. Words newly coined or in vogue in one language are very often added to English as well. There are words from 120 languages in its vocabulary, including Arabic, French, German, Greek, Italian, Russian, Spanish and Turkish. 70 per cent of the English vocabulary are loan words and only 30 per cent of the words are native.


E. Have you ever wondered how many people speak English? It’s around 400 million people. Geographically, English is the most wide-spread language on earth, and it’s second only to Chinese in the number of people who speak it. It’s spoken in the British Isles, the USA, Australia, New Zealand and much of Canada and South Africa. English is also a second language of another 300 million people living in more than 60 countries.


F. In Shakespeare’s time only a few million people spoke English. All of them lived in what is now Great Britain. Through the centuries, as a result of various historical events, English spread throughout the world. There were only 30,000 words in Old English. Modern English has the largest vocabulary in the world – more than 600,000 words.


G. In the English language blackboards can be green or white, and blackberries are green and then red before they are ripe. There is no egg in eggplant, neither mush nor room in mushroom, neither pine nor apple in pineapple, no ham in hamburger. Why is it that a king rules a kingdom but a queen doesn’t rule a queendom? If the plural of tooth is teeth, shouldn’t the plural of booth be beeth? And in what other language can your nose run?




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A. There are a lot of traditions connected with Christmas but perhaps the most important one is the giving of presents. Family members wrap up their gifts and leave them at the bottom of the Christmas tree to be found on Christmas morning. Children leave a long sock or stocking at the end of their beds on Christmas Eve, 24th December, hoping that Father Christmas will come down the chimney during the night and bring them small presents, fruit and nuts.


B. At some time on Christmas day the family will sit down to a big turkey dinner followed by Christmas pudding or Christmas cake. As for Christmas cake, heavy and overfilling it is not to everybody’s taste. To make things worse, it takes weeks to make and when it is ready it can last until Easter, so if you don’t like it, you have to try and eat some at Christmas to avoid being haunted by it months after.


C. Officially Christmas and New Year celebrations run from the 24th of December to the 2nd of January. However, for many Brits the Christmas marathon starts as early as the beginning of October with the first festive adverts on TV. The idea of Christmas shopping is that you spend as much money as you can on anything you cast your eyes on, preferably something neither you nor your family or friends will ever use. An average British family spends 670 pounds or more around the Christmas period.


D. Long live Christmas! -say pickpockets, car thieves and burglars getting their share of Christmas shopping. Every year thousands of people get their wallets stolen in overcrowded shops and streets. Lots of lovely presents, which somebody spent so much time and money on, disappear without a trace when cars and homes are broken into. As much as 9% of people experience a burglary in December.


E. Who doesn’t want to have a white Christmas? Playing snowballs and making a snowman with the whole family on Christmas Day is most people’s dream (apart from the countries like Australia that celebrate Christmas in summer, on the beach). This dream is more likely to come true in northern countries like Russia, but for the British people it’s different. Although it’s not uncommon to get some snow in Scotland and northern England, the rest of Britain is normally only lucky enough to get some frost. In most cases the weather is wet and gloomy.


F. New year is a time for celebrating and making a new start in life. In Britain many people make New Year’s resolutions. This involves people promising themselves that they will improve their behaviour in some way, by giving up bad habits. People might decide to give up smoking, for example, or to go on a diet. These promises are often broken in the first few days of the New Year, however!


G. Christmas is celebrated on the 25th of December. For most families, this is the most important festival of the year. On this day many people are travelling home to be with their families. Most houses are decorated with brightly-coloured paper or holly, and there is usually a Christmas tree in the corner of the front room. Unfortunately, not all families get on well together. As it is a well-known fact, some magazines publish tips on how to cope with Christmas, such as yoga, meditation or holidays abroad.




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1. National language

2. Freedom of media

3. Customs and traditions

4. Public transport

5. Geography

6. Leisure and sport

7. Modern history

8. Economic outlook


A. Lithuania is situated on the eastern Baltic coast and borders Latvia in the north, the Kaliningrad region of the Russian Federation and Poland in the southwest, and Belarus in the southwest and east. The geometrical centre of Europe lies in eastern Lithuania 25km north of its capital Vilnius. The landscape varies between lowland plains and hilly uplands and has a complex network of rivers.


B. Lithuania has historically been the least developed of the Baltic republics, with a smaller industrial base and greater dependence on agriculture. Sugar beet, cereals, potatoes and vegetables are the main crops. Lithuania’s foreign trade was gradually changing during the 1990s, and now the European Union, not Russia, is its main trading partner.


C. Lithuanian is the mother tongue for 80% of the population. After the country joined the European Union in 2004 this language has become one of the EU official languages. Lithuania has a large number of dialects for such a small territory, including High Lithuanian and Low Lithuanian.


D. Lithuania offers different opportunities for a nice vacation. You can explore a range of large sand dunes and pine forests while hiking in the Curonian Spit National Park, take part in some action sports in Nida, a village that makes a true paradise for sailing, windsurfing, paragliding and kiting, or try out more extreme sports, such as hot-air ballooning and gliding.


E. Those who are interested in folklore may enjoy their stay in Lithuania in any season of the year. The Mardi Gras celebrations are held in various Lithuanian cities and small towns at the beginning of February. The Folklore Festival is held in Vilnius’ Old Town during in May. There you can see craft fairs, taste traditional dishes, join song and parties and listen to psalms.


F. Lithuania’s TV market is dominated by commercial channels. The radio market is similarly competitive. Lithuania’s media are free and operate independently of the state, and there are no government-owned newspapers. However, politicians do occasionally attempt to influence editorial policy.


G. In cities and towns there are buses and trolleybuses, which usually run from 05.00 to 23.00, but times do vary between routes. You can’t pay the fare to the driver in cash but you can buy coupons from him. Coupons can be also bought at news kiosks before boarding. Minibuses are less crowded but more expensive.





Установите соответствие между заголовками 1–8 и текстами A–G. Запишите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.


1. Expenses

2. Ways of behaviour

3. Nightlife

4. Favourite food

5. Place to stay in

6. Eating out

7. National languages

8. Great outdoors


A. Norway is first of all a land for those who love nature. The breathtaking fjords in the southwest of the country and Europe’s largest glacier are Norway’s most attractive places, but there are many other reasons to visit this country in the north of Europe. There are wonderful opportunities to enjoy skiing, fishing and rock-climbing. Others can take pleasure in the charm of the Norwegian countryside, with its countless valleys, high mountain lakes and unbelievable views.


B. Many tourists coming to Norway in the summer prefer to stay in a cottage used by northern Norwegian fishermen during the winter cod-fishing season. Equipped with all the necessary facilities, these cottages are leased to holidaymakers, providing an attractive form of accommodation. They will often be actually over the water. Catching your own fish and cooking it on the fire will add a few pleasant moments to your holiday.


C. Norway has a long history of fishing, although much of the high quality shellfish and other species caught off the coast are exported. However, fish remains a common dish, along with meat, potatoes and other root vegetables, although tastes have changed in recent years to involve a wider international choice, including pizzas and burgers. The most popular traditional hot snack is a form of sausage, sold at numerous outlets.


D. Traditionally entertainment in the country is largely home-based, but this has been changing in recent years. Most Norwegians tend to go out only on Fridays and Saturdays, the rest of the week being fairly quiet. This is in no small part due to the high prices of food and drink, and the fact that the working day starts early. And at weekends, it is normal for the Norwegians to enjoy drinks at home before leaving it as late as 11.00 p.m.


E. Restaurants tend to be concentrated in city centres, while in recent years the pub culture has been gradually arriving in Norway. Cities are nowadays well supplied with a wide choice of bars, many of which offer food that has a lower price compared to the restaurants. Most villages of any size have at least one cafe or restaurant where it is possible to drink and eat out.


F. Norwegians are generally sincere and polite, though communication doesn’t often come easy — it is usually up to you to break the ice and establish contact. They can be very direct and rarely say ‘please’, which may seem rude, but it’s due to the fact that the Norwegian language rarely uses the word. On the other hand, they say ‘thank you’ for almost everything. They also tend to address people by their first name even on many formal occasions.


G. Norway is an expensive country. As labour is costly here, anything that can be seen as a ‘service’ will generally be more expensive than you expect. Transport costs can also be a killer, because the country is large and distances are long. But there is one good point: Norway has a high quality of tap water. So buying bottled drinking water is usually unnecessary and this will save your budget.





Установите соответствие между заголовками 1–8 и текстами A–G. Запишите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.


1. Footballers’ diets

2. Ideal football shape

3. Length matters

4. Puree instead of pasta

5. Secret born in the USSR

6. Stress or relaxation

7. Flying fruit

8. Referee’s perspective


A. Good footballers must have something in their genes. Scientists have discovered a link between the length of a footballer’s ring finger and their ability as a player. They compared the ring and index fingers of top players. Players whose ring fingers were longer compared to their index fingers were more likely to be elite players. Some of the players found to have long ring fingers are Bryan Robson, Ossie Ardiles, Glenn Hoddle, Sir Stanley Matthews and Gazza.


B. Fitness training is absolutely necessary for a first-rate football team. Jogging up and down the stadium a few times is not enough. What footballers really need is a quick start. Footballers can get this ability to start running very quickly by using a training method called ‘plyometrics’. In the 1960s, athletes in the Soviet Union used plyometric exercises to improve their results in jumping. Step by step, the method has become very important for many sports that include sprinting and jumping.


C. In the past, footballers used to have a big fried breakfast — or even a roast dinner — before a football match. In the new era of professional football, the menu of modern players has been radically reformed. Arsenal manager, Arsene Wenger, is known for his scientific method of feeding his team. When he first came to the club in 1996, he at once changed the players’ dinner menus. Sugar, red meat, chips, fried foods and dairy products were out. Vegetables, fish, chicken and plenty of water were in.


D. French diet specialists heavily criticised the pre-match diet of the England players in Euro ‘96. Their menu of tomato soup and spaghetti was said to be more likely to produce wind than a win. Potatoes, according to French scientists, make the best meal on the day of a game. They have glucides, which give the player a lot of energy. They also include useful vitamins. According to one piece of research, a player should eat 200-300 grams of mashed potatoes, boiled for 20 minutes, exactly three hours before going to the game.


E. Physics can explain a football wonder — the banana kick. This happens when a ball suddenly changes its direction at the end of its flight. At a certain speed, the air flowing over a flying ball becomes ‘turbulent’. This means that the air moves irregularly over the ball. As the ball slows down, the air becomes ‘smooth’ again. This slowdown makes the ball turn dramatically, creating the wonderful ‘banana’ kicks that the spectators like so much.


F. These days, footballs are made in a design based on the ‘Buckminster Ball’. The American architect Richard Buckminster Fuller came up with the design when he was trying to find a way for constructing buildings using a minimum of materials. The ball is a series of geometrical figures, which can be fitted together to make a round body. The modern football is in fact a Buckminster Ball consisting of 32 pieces. When they are joined together and filled with air they make a perfect sphere. 


G. Research has shown that watching the World Cup is good for our health even if your team goes out on penalties. The scientists suggest that a common interest and a nationalistic pride are very important. The competition makes people less concentrated on their own problems. They are also more patient and can cope with crises much easier. Watching football can, however, also be disappointing, especially when it comes to the decisions of referees and officials. Besides, watching penalties can be very nervous.




Установите соответствие между заголовками 1–8 и текстами A–G. Запишите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.


1. Training the mind

2. Welsh roots

3. Quick reaction

4. Chemistry in tennis

5. Too fast

6. Losing control

7. Unexpected prize

8. Ads with wings


A. By now Wimbledon has become a popular national festival, together with Ascot and the Cup Final. Many people in Britain don’t know that tennis was first played in Wales. It was there, in 1873, that Major Walter Wingfield played a game with the recently invented rubber balls and enjoyed it so much, that he decided to develop the standards of the game. He published the first book of tennis rules later that year. The first Wimbledon championship was held a few years later in 1877 and the British Lawn Tennis Association formed in 1888.


B. Good mental preparation is necessary for professional tennis players. In a long match they can be on the court for several hours with nobody to talk to. There can be hundreds of stops from the crowd, their opponent and, especially at Wimbledon, the rain. Players need to practice methods for improving their concentration and for motivating themselves when the game is going against them. They are often taught to imagine some situations, such as a tense tie-break. Then they imagine what to do with it.


C. Many players find it impossible to stay calm in the stressful situation of a long tennis match and let their temper out. John McEnroe was famous for his quarrels with referees. Several players have been given warnings for throwing the racket or swearing. Some players lose matches they could easily win because their mind lets them down. Pat Rafter said that he couldn’t breathe in his 2000 Wimbledon final. The stress of being near the victory can be too much for a person.


D. The power of today’s tennis game is only partly created by the athletes themselves. Much of it comes from their rackets. New designs mean players can hit the ball with more speed and accuracy than ever before. It started in the 1970s when the traditional wooden racket was replaced with metal. Since then different materials have been used. Graphite has made the biggest influence. Now the graphite can be mixed with materials such as boron and titanium to produce even stronger, and lighter, rackets.


E. Speed isn’t always a good thing. Many fans are complaining that the speed of the game is making tennis boring to watch. After two years of testing, a new ball has now been invented which could slow down tennis and make it more exciting to watch. The ball is put together in exactly the same way as the one used now, but is 6% larger in diameter. The bigger ball gives the receiver 10% more reaction time in which to return the serve. So the number of aces — serves in a match that the receiver fails to return — will be far fewer.


F. When Irishman John Boland travelled to Athens for the first modern Olympic Games in 1896, he had no idea he would return home with the gold medal in tennis. But then, he had no idea he would compete either — he went to watch the competion. In comparison, today’s Olympic tennis players include some of the best athletes in the world. They are used to five-star hotels and hundreds of thousands of dollars, but at the Olympic Games they will stay in the Olympic Village and compete for nothing but a gold medal.


G. The Wimbledon tennis tournament is famous for pigeons that sometimes come flying on to Centre Court and stop the game. So, producers of a video tennis game designed for PlayStation2 decided to use specially trained homing pigeons, decorated with the game’s logo. Twenty birds will be spray-painted with the Virtual Tennis logo and trained to fly in and out of the home of British tennis during the matches of the Wimbledon championship. The advertising pigeons will go straight for the fans and show their logos to them.




Установите соответствие между заголовками 1–8 и текстами A–G. Запишите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.


1. Controlling skies

2. Lack of safety

3. Bicycle is faster

4. Office at home

5. Blocked roads

6. Paid roads

7. Improving railways

8. Buses instead of cars


A. The world’s first public passenger railway was built in Great Britain in 1826 and ran between the industrial north-eastern towns of Stockton and Darlington. After 180 years’ experience the British say that their trains still don’t seem to run efficiently or even safely. On average, about 500 accidents with broken rail tracks happen in the country every year.


B. The British government is promising to give £33.5 billion to modernise the railways before 2010. Another £30 billion is to come from the private sector. The main target is to increase safety and speed. For example, new London-to-Scotland high-speed trains significantly reduce journey times and in 2004 a warning system was installed throughout the country.


C. Statistics show that only 12% of all journeys made in Britain are by public transport. The remaining 88% are made by car. Every year British people spend about two weeks travelling to and from work including nine days in their own cars. But anyone will say this isn’t a quick and easy way to travel. In fact, a journey from London to Manchester frequently takes seven hours. A cyclist could get there quicker.


D. Every year there are about half a million traffic jams in Britain. That is nearly 10,000 a week. There are hundreds of big traffic jams every day. According to the forecast, the number of jams will grow by 20 per cent over the next ten years. Nearly a quarter British people find themselves in a jam every day and 55 per cent at least once a week.


E. Nowadays many British people take their children to school by car. Twenty years ago, nearly one in three primary school children made their own way to school. Now only one child in nine makes their own way. During the school year at 08:50 a. m. one car in five on the roads in any British town is taking children to school. The solution could be special school buses widely used in the USA.


F. Many scientists hope that new technologies allowing more people to work at home may help with traffic problems. Fewer people will work from 9 to 5 and travel to and from work during the rush hour. But only 15% of people now want to spend more time working at home. The workplace is, for many people, a place to meet other people and to talk to them, so they would miss it if they worked from home. 


G. In 1903, the Wright brothers made the first aeroplane flight. It only lasted 12 seconds but changed the world forever. A century later, air travel is no longer a miracle, it is part of everyday life. One billion air passengers now fly every year — that’s equivalent to a sixth of the world’s population. To make sure everything runs smoothly, there are special air traffic control centres in each country which watch every aeroplane.




Установите соответствие между заголовками 1–8 и текстами A–G. Запишите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.


1. Useful Invention

2. US Younger Generation

3. Modern Branch of Industry

4. Historical Separation

5. Verbal Misunderstanding

6. Britain, the World Empire

7. All in One

8. Old Enough


A. For 150 years America was a British colony. At that time British and American English were almost exactly the same. When America won the War of Independence in 1776, it became a free country. The USA was quickly growing richer, and millions of Europeans came to settle here. They brought new words and expressions to the language. As a result, English in America began to develop in its own way and today, there are certain differences in pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary and spelling between American and British English.


B. Typical American teenagers are in fact very ordinary. They think their teachers make them work too hard, they love their parents but are sure they don’t understand anything, and their friendships are the most important things in their lives. Some of them do have a lot of money to spend, but usually they have earned it themselves. Most young people take jobs while they are in school. They work at movie theatres, fast-food restaurants, gas stations, and stores to pay for their clothes and entertainment. Maybe this is what makes them so independent from their parents at such a young age?


C. Is it possible to have one device with the functions of a TV-set, a PC and the Internet? With the advent of Internet TV it has become a reality. Imagine watching a film on TV and getting information on the actors in the film at the same time! To enter web-addresses and write e-mails you use a remote control and an on-screen keyboard or an optional wireless keyboard. By clicking a button, you can also read adverts, ‘chat’ with a friend, plan your holiday and play your favourite video games. And in the future you’ll be able to change the plot of the film you are watching!


D. When do you stop being a child and become an adult? There are lots of laws about the age when you can start doing things. In Britain, for example, you can get married at 16, but you cannot get a tattoo until you are 18. In most American states you can have a driving licence at 17, but you cannot drink until you are 21. In Russia you can be put to prison when you are 16, but you cannot vote until you are 18. In fact, most European countries and the US have the same age for voting: 18. Many people, however, think that this is unfair. They would like to vote at an earlier age.


E. Blue jeans were a by-product of the Gold Rush. The man who invented jeans, Levi Strauss, emigrated from Germany to San Francisco in 1850. Levi was 20 years old, and he decided to sell clothes to the miners who were in California in search of gold. When he was told that durable trousers were the most needed item of clothing, Levi began making jeans of heavy tent canvas. Levi’s jeans were an immediate success. Soon he switched from canvas to a cotton fabric which came from Nimes, a city in France. The miners called it ‘denim’ and bought a lot of trousers from Strauss.


F. Some fifty years ago people hadn’t even heard of computers, and today we cannot imagine our life without them. Computer technology is now the fastest-growing industry in the world. The first computer was the size of a minibus and weighed a ton. Today, its job can be done by a chip the size of a pinhead. And the revolution is still going on. Very soon we’ll have computers that we’ll wear on our wrists or even in our glasses and ear-rings. Such wearable computers are now being developed in the USA.


G. Some American words are simply unknown on the other side of the Atlantic, and vice versa. But a lot of words exist in both variants, and these can cause trouble. British visitors to America are often surprised at the different meanings that familiar words have acquired there. If an Englishman asks in an American store for a vest, he will be offered a waistcoat. If he wants to buy a handbag for his wife, he should ask for a purse, and if she wants to buy a pair of tights, she should ask for pantyhose: tights in America are what ballet dancers wear.




Установите соответствие между заголовками 1–8 и текстами A–G. Запишите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.


1. Lucky escape

2. Long journey

3. Good way to meet

4. Growing in popularity

5. Ordering in

6. Fast food is unhealthy

7. A new way to buy

8. Too much choice


A. When you are tired and don’t want to cook, just pick up the phone. Restaurants are expensive and take some time and effort to reach if you don’t live in the centre of town. Ordering food for home delivery is cheap and these days there is a huge choice. Indian and Chinese are the most popular but I prefer to get in a pizza.


B. A school group on a skiing holiday to Italy narrowly avoided disaster when their coach left the road and fell eighty meters into a valley. Trees slowed down the falling coach and because of the fresh new snow the vehicle landed quite softly. Amazingly no one was injured.


C. A teenager from London is making news around the world. On his recent holiday in Australia he set off without his mobile phone. Experts are amazed that he is still alive after walking for fourteen days, surviving extreme temperatures and living off the land. However, a lot of Australians are unhappy with him. The rescue cost is estimated at more than 100,000 dollars.


D. You can buy almost anything, new or second hand, on the internet. On one site you can offer the price you want to pay for something. Whoever offers the highest price can buy that item. Recently I made the highest offer for a nearly new pair of skis. However, I only paid half of what they would have cost new in a shop.


E. Making new friends on the internet makes so much sense. You can see someone’s photo and read if they share your interests and opinions. The important thing is you can spend time getting to know people who are attractive to you and looking for the same things in life that you are. Still, for personal safety, most sites recommend that in person you meet initially in a public place like a cafe or a gallery.


F. I like eating out but some restaurants have huge menus. And usually every item sounds mouth watering. The trouble is I like to read about everything on offer and sometimes waiters wait for me rather than on me! The other issue is how they can offer so much whilst maintaining quality? I’d rather take one of five options knowing that each one was brilliant.


G. “Facebook” is a social networking website that has 250 million members and despite lots of criticism by employers, governments and media, continues to attract thousands of new users daily. In spite of claims of concerns about privacy, safety and wasting time at work, “Facebook” is one of the most rapidly establishing phenomena of recent years.




Установите соответствие между заголовками 1–8 и текстами A–G. Запишите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.


1. For parents and friends

2. Radiation threat

3. Threat for kids

4. Feeling of safety

5. Mobile future

6. Mobile booking office

7. New language

8. SMS to premier


A. Mobile phones use ‘radio waves’ to send signals. Since the 1920s, scientists have known that radio waves can cause the heating of the skin and influence the nervous system. But mobile phones don’t produce many radio waves. Still children should be especially careful about mobile phone use because their nervous system may be hurt. Children should only use mobiles for short calls.


B. It is known that the strength of radio wave radiation decreases with distance. It suggests that hands-free sets may be effective in avoiding all the dangers of mobile phones. But another study described an increase in radiation that reached the user of a hands-free set. It says that the cable of the hands-free set acted as an antenna, directing more radio waves into the user’s ear.


C. Train passengers will soon be able to buy tickets on their mobile phone. Chiltern Railways plans to sell tickets through mobile phones. The new technology sends a code to a mobile phone in a text message, which passengers can then scan at the station ticket barrier. It’s hoped the method will make buying tickets easier for passengers and help fight against queues at stations.


D. Many parents now use mobiles to control their children’s behaviour. It gives parents peace of mind and makes young people feel protected. Parents say that young people are safer with mobiles than without them. But, while parents said they liked to call their children on the mobile to actually hear their voice, young people liked to send text messages to parents.


E. A research showed that those young people who have a mobile feel more independent and often use it to plan meetings both relatives and peers. In particular, young people often use mobiles to ask their parents if they can come home later. The study showed that girls more often text parents to let them know they were safe than boys. They also use text messaging for socializing purposes.


F. It is not only parents who want to connect with young people through mobile technologies. Nowadays politicians and different organizations look for ways to use text messaging as a channel for communication with the young. In late 2004, the UK government offered people the opportunity to ‘text Tony’. People were invited to send a text question to the prime minister to be answered as part of a ‘mobile chat’.


G. The popularity of text messages led to the development of a special system of words or ‘chat speak’. For example, acronyms, that are words made from the first letters of other words, are often used both in online chatrooms and text messages sent to your mobile phone. This ‘chat speak’ is very popular with children who are fast at texting. Parents might be interested to know that ‘PAW’ means ‘parents are watching’!




Установите соответствие между заголовками 1–8 и текстами A–G. Запишите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.


1. A taste of everything

2. Shop till you drop

3. City’s tourist attractions

4. Ancient traditions live on

5. Activities for the adventurous and hardy

6. On the crossroads of religions

7. For the body, mind and soul

8. From the high peaks to the deep seas


A. Today Jakarta has much to offer, ranging from museums, art and antique markets, first class shopping to accommodations and a wide variety of cultural activities. Jakarta’s most famous landmark, the National Monument or Monas is a 137m obelisk topped with a flame sculpture coated with 35 kg of gold. Among other places one can mention the National museum that holds an extensive collection of ethnographic artifacts and relics, the Maritime Museum that exhibits Indonesia’s seafaring traditions, including models of sea going vessels.


B. Sumatra is a paradise for nature lovers, its national parks are the largest in the world, home to a variety of monkeys, tigers and elephants. Facing the open sea, the western coastline of Sumatra and the waters surrounding Nias Island have big waves that make them one of the best surfer’s beaches in Indonesia. There are beautiful coral reefs that are ideal for diving. For those who prefer night dives, the waters of Riau Archipelago offer a rewarding experience with marine scavengers of the dark waters.


C. Various establishments offer professional pampering service with floral baths, body scrubs, aromatic oils, massages and meditation; rituals and treatments that use spices and aromatic herbs to promote physical and mental wellness. Various spa hotels are extremely popular. Indonesians believe that when treating the body you cure the mind.


D. Jakarta has a distinctly cosmopolitan flavor. Tantalize your taste buds with a gastronomic spree around the city’s many eateries. Like French gourmet dining, exotic Asian cuisine, American fast food, stylish cafes, restaurants all compete to find a way into your heart through your stomach. The taste of Indonesia’s many cultures can be found in almost any corner of the city: hot and spicy food from West Sumatra, sweet tastes of Dental Java, the tangy fish dishes of North Sulawesi.


E. In the face of constant exposure to modernization and foreign influences, the native people still faithfully cling to their culture and rituals. The pre-Hindu Bali Aga tribe still maintains their own traditions of architecture, pagan religion, dance and music, such as unique rituals of dances and gladiator-like battles between youths. On the island of Siberut native tribes have retained their Neolithic hunter-gathering culture.


F. Whether you are a serious spender or half hearted shopper, there is sure to be something for everybody in Jakarta. Catering to diverse tastes and pockets, the wide variety of things you can buy in Jakarta is mind boggling from the best of local handicrafts to haute couture labels. Modern super and hyper markets, multi-level shopping centers, retail and specialty shops, sell quality goods at a competitive price. Sidewalk bargains range from tropical blooms of vivid colors and scents in attractive bouquets to luscious fruits of the seasons.


G. The land’s long and rich history can’t be separated from the influence of Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam and Christianity. There is one of the oldest Hindu temples in Java, the majestic Buddhist ‘monastery on the hill’, Borobudur, the largest Buddhist monument in the world. About 17 km away from this monastery is a 9th century temple complex built by the Sanjaya dynasty. Prambanan complex is dedicated to the Hindu trinity: Ciwa, Vishnu and Brahma. The spread of Islam also left interesting monuments such as the 15th century Minaret Mosque in Kudus.




Установите соответствие между заголовками 1–8 и текстами A–G. Запишите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.


1. Party dessert

2. Outdoor game

3. Taking care of a pet

4. Collecting things

5. Giving a party

6. Party animals

7. Fun on the way

8. Party game


A. Ask your parents for permission to have a party. Decide what kind of party you want and whether it will be held indoors or outdoors. Send written invitations to your friends. Tell them what kind of party you are having, at what time, where, and whether or not the guests should wear costumes. Make a list of games you would like to play. Ask your mother to help you prepare refreshments. Ice cream, cake, cookies, and lemonade are good for any party.


B. This activity makes everybody laugh. Have the guests sit around the room. Choose one person to be a pussycat. The pussy must go over to a guest and do his/her best to make the guest laugh. He/she can make funny meows and walk around like a cat. The pussy goes from one guest to another until someone laughs. The first one to laugh becomes the new pussy.


C. It’s easy to make a cake from a cake mix that you get from the grocery store. You usually add only water or milk. Cake mixes come in many flavours, such as chocolate, lemon, banana, vanilla and others. When you make a cake from a mix, always follow the directions on the package carefully. Then you can be sure that your cake will turn out right and your guests will enjoy it. Many mixes have a small envelope of powdered frosting hidden inside the flour.


D. As you ride on a bus with your friends, get someone to start singing. Everyone joins in. At the first crossroad, another person starts a different song, and everyone joins in. Keep changing songs at every crossroad.


E. Looking after cats is easy. They wash themselves every day and eat almost any food. Cats like to drink milk and cream. But they need to be fed on fish, beef, liver, and other kinds of meat. They need a clean, dry bed at night. You can use a basket or a cardboard box for your cat’s bed. Cats like to play with a rubber ball or chase a string.


F. You can have a whole army of toy soldiers made of tin, wood or plastic. Some may be dressed in fancy uniforms, some may be sitting on horses. Others may be ready for battle, carrying guns and shoulder packs. You can have soldiers from other countries, or only Civil War soldiers or only modern soldiers. If you get two soldiers that are alike, trade your extra soldier with another toy soldier lover.


G. Even animals get involved in elections. The donkey and elephant have been political symbols in the USA for more than 100 years. Why? In 1828, Democrat Andrew Jackson ran for president. Critics said he was stubborn as a donkey. The donkey has been the symbol

of the Democratic Party ever since. In the 1870s, newspaper cartoonists began using the elephant to stand for the Republican Party.




Установите соответствие между заголовками 1–8 и текстами A–G. Запишите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.


1. Musical performance

2. Attractive landscape

3. Perfect holidays

4. Portrait of a girl

5. Film for all ages

6. Exciting hobby

7. Colourful festival

8. Interesting book


A. This is a full-length (ninety minutes) cartoon, which is entertaining for both adults and children over six. The animation and colour are of very high quality and the story has lots of fun and excitement. The plot is quick moving and full of surprises. There’s romance, action, comedy, music and lots of fantastic songs and dances.


B. This is a full-blooded magnificently written portrait of history’s most fascinating woman. Readers will lose themselves for hours in this richly entertaining novel full of dramatic twists and turns. From the spectacular era that bears her name comes the spellbinding story of Elizabeth I — her tragic childhood, her confrontation with Mary, Queen of Scots and her brilliant reign.


C. The young woman is shown in a “shepherdess” hat and white dress, recalling a classical chiton. The background landscape, common in such paintings, seems to indicate the heroine’s closeness to nature, to the ordinary joys of life. The painter’s colour range — at times as translucent as porcelain, at others muted like mother -of- pearl — is based upon subtle plays of gray and green, light blue and pink.


D. In this picture one is struck by the artist’s absolute mastery in portraying natural details, whether the dry, sandy soil of the forest, the clear stream of water in the foreground, the yellow bark and fluffy needles of the pines, or the sense of a bright, clear, calm summer day. The artist managed to create an image familiar to anyone who has seen a Russian forest.


E. Have a good time on the most lively and exciting island in the Caribbean. Relax under a palm tree on the white sandy beaches. Swim in the clear, blue sea. Listen to the bands playing Calypso music. Or get really adventurous and go scuba diving for sunken treasure on the sea bed. Join in the many cultural celebrations we offer, for example the sugar harvest festival.


F. This event is considered the greatest attraction for visitors to the Isle of Man. No definite date can be given, but it is normally held between 5th and 15th July. The Pageant begins at about 8 p.m. First we are given a glimpse of village life in Celtic times. Then suddenly Viking long ships appear and then there are scenes of war. Then Celts and Vikings unite, and the Manx nation is born. The actual Pageant is followed by a grand torchlight procession and firework display.


G. Do you like Latin American dancing? Do you want to dance like you see in the films and on the stage? Do you want to feel the rhythm of the music in your body and in your soul? Do you want to meet other people who have a love for the same music as you? If you have answered “Yes” to any of these questions, join our Latin dance classes on Thursday night between seven and ten. All are welcome.




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1. Thoughtless behaviour

2. Benefits of private business

3. Too complicated to use

4. Bad for business

5. Science brings hope

6. Road incident

7. More parking places

8. Personal choice


A. City centre parking is expensive and many important roads are now closed to private transport. This would be fine — if public transport was cheap and convenient, but it is neither. The result is that people are avoiding the city centre so restaurants, cinemas and shops are closing.


B. The motorcyclist drew along side and I heard abusive language as he banged on the car roof. I immediately locked the car doors and tried to work out what was wrong. He then shouted that I had almost collided with him. Truth to tell — I didn’t see him until now. I tried to apologize but he wouldn’t listen.


C. They now have cars that run on electricity, solar power and even on vegetable oil. New petrol engines are super efficient and make less harmful emissions. More people are working from home because of advances in communication technology and computer security. At last we have some grounds for optimism.


D. As she approached the traffic lights the driver in front of her tipped out a mess of fast food boxes, polystyrene cups and chip bags. She pressed her horn angrily. “Why don’t people consider what they do”, she wondered helplessly. “Someone will have to clear this up and we all have to pay for it.”


E. Sarah has worked for herself more than 10 years now. It had been risky but now her interior decoration business is a success. She loves being her own boss. It constantly amazes her that her friends in big corporations believe they have job security. How can they think this way when these companies are constantly firing people to make bigger profits?


F. It was not easy deciding. It never is when buying a new car. Reliability and comfort are big issues as are fuel economy, maintenance and so forth. A car has to feel right as well. Price and value for money are also critical. But in the end Ralph made his decision confident that it was just the right one for him.


G. Jane studied the small print. To make a successful insurance claim for her accident she needed so much information. Several complicated forms took hours to complete. She then needed three independent quotations, a witness statement, and a police statement and after everything she still had to pay the first $500 anyway.




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1. Just in time

2. Just in case

3. Eventful life

4. A curious case

5. Reduced Expectations

6. Royal brother

7. Royal ancestor

8. Double trouble


A. I am a mother of identical, mirror-image boys — David and John. No one but me can tell them apart. I am constantly amazed at how close they are. Once when they were babies David was ill, but it was John who began crying wildly. I tried to calm John first since nothing was wrong with him. But he only cried louder. Finally I gave some medicine to David — who really was unwell. As soon as John sensed his brother felt better, he immediately settled to sleep.


B. The 12 year old was playing near the Platte River in North Bend, Nebraska. The river was high and as the boy stepped in, the current pushed his legs away. He floated off, spinning in the powerful current. At the last possible moment before the rapids, his yells were heard by his dog. It jumped in, reached the boy and towed him ashore. Another second and the boy would have been swept away to certain death.


C. Armgaard Karl Graves, referred to in press reports as ‘the Glasgow Spy’, was convicted in Scotland under the Official Secrets Act (1911) for spying on the British Navy. He spent years successfully creating an identity as an Australian doctor and in Scotland even conducted important clinical experiments. But he was eventually caught by a suspicious post office worker as he sent and received post under a variety of assumed names.


D. Zsa Zsa Gabor was born in Budapest on February 6th, 1917. Now in her 90s she has had a long and varied life. She was a beauty queen and singer before becoming a famous screen actress. She was married 8 times but only had one child with second husband, Conrad Hilton. Her last marriage to Frederic von Anhalt gave her the honorary title Prinzessin von Anhalt.


E. “Who do you think you are” is one of my favourite TV programs. Each episode researches the family history of a celebrity, back into the mists of time. In the UK there are good records of births, marriages and deaths going back hundreds of-years. One of the best episodes was on Boris Johnson, the Mayor of London. He was thrilled when he discovered he was directly related to King George II.


F. Paris Hilton is a famous socialite, media personality, actress, model and singer. In 2007 her grandfather Barron Hilton pledged 97% of his estate — a value of more than 2 billion US dollars — to a charitable foundation. Many now believe that Paris and the other grandchildren have had their potential inheritance sharply reduced. Others have commented that this news was unlikely to change her future life style.


G. Andy always travels well equipped for any potential possibility. He has a sewing repair kit and a small medical kit with aspirin. These are, I suppose, perfectly sensible. But what about a ball of string, tape measure, masking tape, Swiss army penknife, disposable cutlery, disinfectant, dry bags and an inflatable back rest? Andy says you never know what might happen and it’s always best to be prepared.




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1. Naturally different

2. Big age difference

3. Different opinions

4. Different ambitions

5. Small differences

6. No difference at all

7. Different rules

8. Learning to be different


A. John and James are identical twins but they don’t go to the same school. Their parents felt this would help them develop individual tastes, interests and styles-but the boys at first hated the idea. Now they are really happy at their schools but occasionally they swap places just for fun! The brothers are best friends but they now agree that their parents were probably correct.


B. Anna and Beth are twin sisters but they are most unlike each other. Technically they are “non-identical” twins. Anna is blonde and Beth is a brunette. Anna is noisy, energetic and always crashing around to hip hop and rap. Beth is much quieter and likes listening to classical music and reading. Anna eats anything and Beth is a vegetarian. But they are, absolutely, the closest and best of friends.


C. The Perkins children, Sally and John, both study hard every evening after college and most weekends. Sally studies French, history and Art. She plans to go to university in Paris and wants to either work in a museum or an art sale room. John studies the Russian language, business studies and maths. He wants to study in St. Petersburg and to set up his own import business. I am sure both will succeed.


D. Greg’s dad believes that there is no original, exciting new music being written and performed today. Greg strongly disagrees and can name several new bands and singers that are both completely original and really popular. But his Dad is a professional musician and was quite successful when he was young. He argues that nearly every successful song now is simply a reworked version of an older one.


E. In the UK you can legally do different things depending on your age. You can vote for a new government at 18 but at 17 you cannot drink a beer. At 16 you can marry and become a parent but you cannot drive to your wedding or make a traditional toast! Meanwhile lots of bars and clubs are open only to people above 21 which means, married, voting, car driving parents could still be too young to enter.


F. Serious stamp collectors are men and women who appreciate details. To the casual observer, the oldest postage stamps in the world — the Victorian “Penny Blacks” — all look identical. Millions were made but only a few of them are truly valuable. A serious collector knows this and the ability to find tiny variations in the paper, ink or code used helps them to find the “Penny Black’s” that are rare and valuable. 


G. Dina Ruiz has Japanese and black ancestry on her father’s side of the family and English, Welsh and German on her mother’s. She was born in California and married her husband, actor Clint Eastwood, in Las Vegas. When she first met Eastwood, she was 28 and he was 63. She is most famous as a TV news “anchor” and is Chair of The California Museum for History, Women and the Arts.




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1. The wrong goal

2. Extra-curricular over load

3. Too much homework

4. Arguably helpful

5. Too stressful

6. Too many distractions

7. A better system

8. Poor co-ordination


A. My problem with homework is that I am rather fond of TV and computer games. Every evening after school it is the same. I start with the highest intentions. I’ll just play one round of Final fantasy and then begin. But it tends to be three rounds and then tea time. Oh — and then my favourite program begins in 10 minutes so I’ll start after that. And so it goes on. Probably I lack motivation.


B. It is so much faster doing homework these days. All our assignments can be done on the PC which means correcting and changing things is so easy. But of course the Internet is the biggest shortcut of all. Maybe it’s true what they say that it stops you reading textbooks. You get snatches of information rather than the whole story. Maybe I should try to use the internet less.


C. I am a drummer and a pianist. The school really encourages this and I have two one hour lessons a week plus one to two hours daily practice. I am in the basketball team. The school encourages this and we practice twice a week. I got picked to be in the school play. Rehearsals are two hours a week. Will somebody please tell me when I am supposed to get my homework done?


D. Exam practice, constant revision, exam techniques and how to get the highest possible grade— is this what education is supposed to be about? The school seems obsessed with grades and the school results league table. We are currently 17th highest achievers in England but if we really try hard this year we might make top 10. Silly me! I thought education was about learning and preparing for adult life.


E. For some kids exams bring more pressure than they can cope with. They worry about what their parents will say, not to mention what their teachers or class mates will think. No wonder some of them freeze up in the exam hall and are unable to write anything out of sheer nerves.


F. Why do they do it? We get three weeks in a row with minimal homework and then every teacher in the school sets a massive assignment to be completed “by next Friday — no late submissions”. Why don’t they get together and try and even the load?


G. I think Continuous Assessment is a very sensible idea. Education should not simply be about slick exam performance, but about overall how you perform in school — how you study, how much you read, how logical and clear your essay arguments are. 50% of our final grading should be based on course work. I think it is fair.




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1. Motivating opportunity

2. Books come first

3. Teachers to come first

4. Junk food — out

5. Numbers come first

6. Relevant for today

7. Learn by using

8. Fewer and worse


A. High school students have rights protected by the Constitution like everyone else, but it is complicated. There is no one set of rules. State laws differ from federal laws, and school board regulations vary from place to place. Students discover what rights they have by trying to exercise them, and, if prevented, taking the school to court.


B. Kids who live on junk food grow up to be fat and unhealthy, so schools should teach good health. They should fill their vending machines with health foods, and lunch programs should serve nothing but nutritious meals. If some kids complain, so what? They complain about algebra, too.


C. There is a new five-year program that lets students earn a high school diploma and two years of college at no cost. It is getting kids who are at risk to become more mature in the lower grades, to take college-prep courses, study harder, and focus on a career. Once in the program, very few drop out.


D. Neuroscience (brain science) is finding out how teaching affects the brain. It has discovered pre-school kids can learn numbers and simple math because the number instinct is hard-wired in the brain. So is the language instinct, but teaching kids to read is harder. It takes longer for the brain to connect sounds with letters — up to 11 years.


E. In hard times, colleges must be relevant. Today’s students want Chinese and Arabic, not Latin and Greek. Economics is in demand; and even English classes are teaching how to network, write a resume, and present oneself in an interview. It is not a good time to be a philosophy professor.


F. Computers help with drills and practice, but they are not much help in higher-level thinking. In the lower grades, money is better spent on new textbooks, music programs and the arts. In the higher grades, there is no choice. Everyone should learn to use the electronic genie.


G. The US program, No Child Left Behind, seeks to place a qualified teacher in every classroom. But where is the pool of qualified people out there waiting to teach disadvantaged kids in the cities? US policy should provide better training and support for those already teaching. They could start a new program and call it No Teacher Left Behind.




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1. Travel memories

2. Animal lover magazine

3. Travel to stars

4. Star dreams

5. Popular hobby

6. Family magazine

7. People and nature

8. Animals in danger


A. Most people who spend a holiday travelling take a camera with them and photograph anything that interests them – sights of a city, views of mountains, lakes, waterfalls, men and women, children, ruins of ancient buildings, and even birds and animals. Later looking through their albums they will remember the happy time they have had, the islands, countries and cities they have seen.


B. Of course, different people dream of different things. Someone wishes a calm and quiet life; others imagine their life as a never-ending adventure. The majority dream of something concrete: a villa in some warm place, an account in a Swiss bank, a splendid car… It’s interesting to know what the dreams of people who already have all this are. Celebrities, as we know, never hide their unusual hobbies, and often shock us with their extravagant behaviour.


C. It is Junior Baseball Magazine’s mission to provide information that enhances the youth baseball experience for the entire family. The player improves his skills and is more successful. The family enjoys the activity more and shares this precious time in their life. Junior Baseball emphasizes good sportsmanship, safety, physical fitness and wholesome family values.


D. The seas are in danger. They are filled with poison like industrial, nuclear and chemical waste. The Mediterranean Sea is already nearly dead; the North Sea is following it. The Aral Sea is on the brink of extinction. If nothing is done about it, one day nothing will be able to live in the seas. Every ten minutes one species of animal, plant or insect dies out forever.


E. Lots of people all over the world enjoy collecting stamps. Stamps are like little pictures. Very often they show the flowers or the trees which grow in this or

that country, or they can show different kinds of transport of the country. Stamps may also have portraits of famous people on them. Some stamps show art work from the history of the country.


F. “Friend” is the title of my favourite magazine. It consists of 70 pages, with lots of colourful and bright pictures and provides interesting and useful information for people who love animals. The magazine includes numerous articles devoted to various topics connected with domestic animals, ways to take care of them, pet food, animal health and many other topics crucial for any animal lover.


G. People are beginning to realize that environmental problems are not just somebody else’s. Many people join and support various international organizations and green parties. What could be more important than human life? Polluted air, poisoned water, wastelands, noise, smoke – all these influence not only nature but people as well. Everything should be done to improve ecological conditions on our planet.





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1. A long way to popularity

2. Revolutionary materials

3. Borrowed ideas

4. A stairway to heaven

5. Brilliant ideas and brave deeds

6. It had its finest hour

7. Extraordinary combinations

8. Ideas on sale


A. Born in 1743, Thomas Jefferson helped shape the new American nation and also shaped some of the country's most famous buildings. The twentieth century architects who designed the circular Jefferson Memorial in Washington D.C. drew inspiration from Thomas Jefferson's architectural ideas. And from where did Jefferson get his ideas? The Pantheon in Rome! This building with its classical portico became a model that influenced Western architecture for 2,000 years.


B. Postmodern architecture evolved from the modernist movement, yet contradicts many of the modernist ideas. Combining new ideas with traditional forms, postmodernist buildings may startle, surprise, and even amuse. Familiar shapes and details are used in unexpected ways. Philip Johnson's AT&T Headquarters is often cited as an example of postmodernism. Like many buildings in the international style, this skyscraper has a classical facade.


C. The Industrial Revolution in Europe brought about a new trend: the use of metals instead of wood and stone in construction. Built in 1889, the Eiffel Tower is perhaps the most famous example of this new use for metal. For 40 years, the Eiffel Tower measured the tallest in the world. The metal latticework, formed with very pure structural iron, makes the tower both extremely light and able to withstand tremendous wind forces.


D. By the early 1800s, Belfast had become a major port at the beating heart of the region's industry. The launching of the Titanic from the ship ways was attended by an estimated 100,000 people, showing how important this event was for Belfast. Many more impressive ships would leave the yard in the coming years before the decline of the shipbuilding industry began in the 1950s, but the Titanic marked the zenith of the great shipbuilding era in Belfast.


E. Thomas Andrews was the chief naval architect at the Harland and Wolff shipyard in Belfast during the early 1900s. He brought the idea of 'Olympic class' ocean liners to life. The most famous of these was Titanic, which he joined on its first voyage. His actions when the ship sank on 15 April 1912 are believed to have saved many lives, but at the cost of his own. In his home town of Comber, the life of Thomas Andrews is commemorated by the Memorial Hall, opened in 1915.


F. An e-book or "electronic book" is available digitally downloaded, and accessed through a device such as a computer, a smart phone or, popularly, a portable e-book reader. In 1971, Michael Hart began storing vast contents of libraries in electronic formats. Hart named his efforts Project Gutenberg, after the inventor of the printing press. Libraries were early adopters of the technology. But it took nearly thirty years for the idea of the e-book to take firm hold with the consumer.


G. The Frankfurt Book Fair is held in October of each year. It usually hosts more than 7,300 exhibitors from 100 countries ranging from Albania to Zimbabwe. For the American book publishing industry, the Frankfurt Book Fair is predominantly a trade fair, that is, a professional meeting place for publishers, editors, librarians, book subsidiary rights managers, booksellers, film producers, authors and many others who are involved in the creation and licensing of book content.




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1. Recovery of a masterpiece

2. Return of the popularity

3. Dangerous when rare

4. Back and deep into the past

5. Return to the market

6. A happy comeback

7. From Eastern to Western culture

8. They come back in spring


A. The Mona Lisa, also known as La Giaconda, became world famous after it was stolen from the Louvre in 1911. The painting was missing for two years before police traced the theft to Italian painter, Vincenzo Peruggia, who stole the work to return it to its country of origin. The Louvre Museum in Paris built a separate room to house the Mona Lisa, giving up to five million visitors a year the chance to see the painting.


B. The tradition of telling stories with a series of sequential images has been a part of Japanese culture long before Superman comic strips. The earliest examples of pre-manga artwork that influenced the development of modern Japanese comics are commonly attributed to Toba Sojo, an 11th-century painter-priest with an odd sense of humor. Toba's animal paintings satirized life in the Buddhist priesthood by drawing priests as rabbits or monkeys engaged in silly activities.


C. When the story in which Holmes died was published in a popular magazine in 1893, the British reading public was outraged. More than 20,000 people canceled their subscriptions. The demand for Holmes stories was so great that Conan Doyle brought the great detective back to life by explaining that no one had actually seen Holmes go down the Reichenbach Falls. The public, glad to have new tales, bought the explanation.


D. Caviar refers to the salted eggs of the fish species, sturgeon. At the beginning of the 19th century, the United States was one of the greatest producers of caviar in the world. Because of overfishing, commercial sturgeon harvesting was banned. Today, mostly through farm-raised varieties, caviar production has returned in America. Some American caviar is very high in quality and has been compared favorably to wild Caspian caviar.


E. T.S. Eliot wrote in his poem, "The Waste Land," that April was the "cruelest month." He was living in England at the time, and the weather there can be dreadfully rainy and cold during spring. But from a cook's point of view, April is anything but cruel. The month brings us some of the freshest, most wonderful foods. Consider the first ripe strawberries, asparagus, artichokes, tiny peas, and so much more.


F. When the eruption of Vesuvius started on the morning of 24 August, 79 AD, it caught the local population completely unprepared. The catastrophic magnitude of the eruption was connected with the long period of inactivity that preceded it. The longer the intervals between one eruption and another, the greater the explosion will be. Luckily, the frequent but low-level activity of Vesuvius in recent centuries has relieved the build-up of pressure in the magma chamber.


G. Iron Age Britain can only be understood from the archaeological evidence. There are few spectacular ruins from Iron Age Britain. Unlike in Classical Greece or Ancient Egypt, in Iron Age Britain there was no construction of major cities, palaces, temples or pyramids. Rather, it was an essentially rural world of farms and villages, which had no economic or religious need to build palaces, cities, major tombs or ceremonial sites.





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1. То play any tune

2. A brand new shore museum

3. Still moving along

4. Back from the seas

5. Not a bank but...

6. Magic as attraction

7. A museum of popular drinks

8. One tool museum


A. The Salem Witch Museum brings you back to Salem of 1692 for a dramatic overview of the Witch Trials, including stage sets with life-size figures, lighting and a narration. There is also a possibility to go on a candlelight tour to four selected homes. The museum is open all year round and closed on Thanksgiving, Christmas and New Year's Day. Salem is also famous for its Haunted Happenings, a 24-day Halloween festival.


B. The Discover Sea Shipwreck Museum opened its doors in 1995, and has one of the largest collections of shipwreck and recovered artifacts in the Mid-Atlantic. It contains about 10,000 artifacts from local and worldwide locations, including an intact blown-glass hourglass from a 200-year-old shipwreck, which is also the world's deepest wooden wreck at the heart of the Bermuda Triangle.


C. The Seashore Trolley Museum is the oldest and largest electric railway museum in the world. It was founded in 1939 with one open trolley car, No. 31 from the Biddeford & Saco Railroad Company. The Seashore Trolley Museum contains over 250 transit vehicles, mostly trolleys, from the United States, Canada and abroad. Visitors can even take a trip along the Maine countryside aboard a restored early-1900s electric streetcar.


D. American Hop Museum is dedicated to the brewing industry and located in the heart of the Yakima Valley's hop fields, which gather the best harvest for producing beer. It chronicles the American hop industry from the New England colonies to its expansion into California and the Pacific Northwest, and includes historical equipment, photos and artifacts that pay tribute to hop, the everlasting vine that is still an integral part of the brewing industry.


E. The Money Museum in Colorado Springs is America's largest museum dedicated to numismatics (the study of collecting coins and metals). The collection contains over 250,000 items from the earliest invention of money to modern day, with items including paper money, coins, tokens, medals, and traditional money from all over the world. Highlights include the 1804 dollar, the 1913 V Nickel, the 1866 no motto series, a comprehensive collection of American gold coins, and experimental pattern coins and paper money.


F. The Kenneth G. Fiske Museum of Musical Instruments in California has one of the most diverse collections of musical instruments in the United States. This museum is home to over 1,400 American, European and ethnic instruments from the 17th-20th centuries. Selections from all parts of the world also include keyboards, brass, woodwind, stringed, percussion, mechanical and electronic instruments. Other highlights are rare pieces from the violin and viola families, reed organs and instruments from the Orient and Tibet.


G. The Hammer Museum in Alaska is the world's first museum dedicated to hammers. The Museum provides a view of the past through the use of man's first tool. You will find over 1500 hammers on display, ranging from ancient times to the present. The museum does not have any paid staff, and it is run by volunteers. This quaint and quirky museum is an interesting and informative stop for the whole family.




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1. Plan beforehand

2. Carnival roots

3. The best viewpoints

4. Styles of dancing

5. A music group for a street

6. Carnival's music

7. The time for pleasure

8. The time to attend the Carnival


A. Carnival is the most famous holiday in Brazil and has become a world-famous annual celebration. It is celebrated in towns and villages throughout Brazil for almost a week 40 days before Easter, which is usually in February, the hottest month in the Southern Hemisphere. Officially, it starts on Saturday and finishes on Fat Tuesday with the beginning of Lent on Ash Wednesday, during which some Christians give up something that they enjoy.


B. The most colourful events take place in the Carnival World Capital, Rio de Janeiro. It was the original place where, in 1723, Portuguese immigrants went out onto the streets soaking each other with buckets of water and throwing mud and food, often ending up in street brawls and riots. The concept kept changing throughout the 1800s with more organized parades, where the Emperor with a group of aristocrats joined in masks with luxurious costumes and music.


C. Now the parade varies from state to state. It is a mixture of arts. The music played during Rio Carnival is samba — a unique Brazilian music originating from Rio. It's also a dance form that was invented by the poor Afro-Brazilians as a type of ritual music. The word «samba» meant to pray to the spirits of the ancestors and the gods of the African Pantheon. As a noun, it could mean a complaint or a cry.


D. Even today, the most involved groups in Rio Carnival are the poorest, the so-called «favelas», where houses are made of cardboard or other metal remains, and there is often no water, electricity or sewage system. However, the favelas' residents always join in the festivities and actually make the Carnival, which really means a lot to them. Because, for once during the year, they get to go out and have as much fun as they can.


E. Residents of the favelas are often members of local samba schools and are deeply involved with the performance and costumes of their groups. Each neighborhood in Rio has its favorite Carnival street band. There are more than 300 of them in Rio nowadays, and each year this number increases. Each band has its place or street for its parade and the big ones usually close the streets to the traffic.


F. Rio de Janeiro is usually divided into three zones. The so-called Zona Sul is by far the most pleasant place to stay in Rio, as it is by the sea and is the most civilized part of the city. Districts Copacabana and Ipanema together form a big stage offering a carnival happening at every corner. Leblon, being a bit more upscale, is also an excellent location.


G. Except the industries, malls and the carnival-related workers, the country stops completely for almost a week and festivities are intense, day and night. If you plan to go to watch the Carnival, you should organize your trip well in advance. The best hotels, especially in the Zona Sul, are booked up early, so it's a good idea to make a reservation at least 3 or 4 months in advance.





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1. Hard to see and to believe

2. From travelling to discovery

3. Little experience — big success

4. Small size — great opportunities

5. Inspired by noble goals

6. Hard to explain how they could

7. Protected by law

8. Breathtaking just to watch


A. Charles Darwin's five-year voyage on H. M. S. Beagle has become legendary and greatly influenced his masterwork, the book, On the Origin of Species. Darwin didn't actually formulate his theory of evolution while sailing around the world aboard the Royal Navy ship. But the exotic plants and animals he encountered challenged his thinking and led him to consider scientific evidence in new ways.


B. The 19th century was a remarkable time for exploration. Vast portions of the globe, such as the interior of Africa, were mapped by explorers and adventurers. It was the time when David Livingstone became convinced of his mission to reach new peoples in Africa and introduce them to Christianity, as well as free them from slavery.


C. Louis Pasteur's various investigations convinced him of the Tightness of his germ theory of disease, which holds that germs attack the body from outside. Many felt that such tiny organisms as germs could not possibly kill larger ones such as humans. But Pasteur extended this theory to explain the causes of many diseases — including cholera, ТВ and smallpox — and their prevention by vaccination.


D. Frederick Law Olmsted, the architect who designed New York City's Central Park, called the Yosemite Valley «the greatest glory of nature.» Californians convinced one of their representatives, Senator John Conness, to do something about its protection. In May 1864, Conness introduced legislation to bring the Yosemite Valley under the control of the state of California. President Abraham Lincoln signed the bill into law.


E. The Maya thrived for nearly 2,000 years. Without the use of the cartwheel or metal tools, they built massive stone structures. They were accomplished scientists. They tracked a solar year of 365 days and one of the few surviving ancient Maya books contains tables of eclipses. From observatories, like the one at Chichen Itza, they tracked the progress of the war star, Mars.


F. Bali has been a surfing hotspot since the early 20th century, and continues to attract surfers from all over the world. The island's small size and unique geography provides wonderful surfing conditions, in all seasons, for surfers of any level of experience. Inexperienced surfers might like to try Kuta's kind waves, while more able surfers will try Nusa Dua's powerful waves.


G. Base jumping is an extreme sport, one which only very adventurous travelers enjoy. Some base jumpers leap off bridges, others off buildings and the most extreme off cliffs in Norway. Once a year, base jumpers in the US get to leap off the New River Bridge in West Virginia. During the annual Bridge Day, hundreds of jumpers can go off the bridge legally. Thousands of spectators show up to watch.




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1. Perfect time for a picnic

2. See them fly

3. From pig to pork

4. From a holiday to a sport

5. Diving into history

6. Famous religious celebrations

7. Animal races and shows

8. Music from every corner of the world


A. Diwali is a five-day festival that is celebrated in October or November, depending on the cycle of the moon. It represents the start of the Hindu New Year and honors the victory of good over evil, and brightness over darkness. It also marks the start of winter. Diwali is actually celebrated in honor of Lord Rama and his wife Sita. One of the best places to experience Diwali is in the «pink city» of Jaipur, in Rajasthan. Each year there's a competition for the best decorated and most brilliantly lit up market that attracts visitors from all over India.


B. The Blossom Kite Festival, previously named the Smithsonian Kite Festival, is an annual event that is traditionally a part of the festivities at the National Cherry Blossom Festival on the National Mall in Washington, DC. Kite enthusiasts show off their stunt skills and compete for awards in over 36 categories including aerodynamics and beauty. The Kite Festival is one of the most popular annual events in Washington, DC and features kite fliers from across the U.S. and the world.


C. The annual Ostrich Festival has been recognized as one of the «Top 10 Unique Festivals in the United States» with its lanky ostriches, multiple entertainment bands and many special gift and food vendors. It is truly a unique festival, and suitable for the entire family. The Festival usually holds Ostrich Races, an Exotic Zoo, Pig Races, a Sea Lion Show, a Hot Rod Show, Amateur Boxing and a Thrill Circus.


D. Iceland's Viking Festival takes place in mid-June every year and lasts 6 days, no matter what the weather in Iceland may be. It's one of the most popular annual events in Iceland where you can see Viking-style costumes, musical instruments, jewelry and crafts at the Viking Village. Visitors at the Viking Festival see sword fighting by professional Vikings and demonstrations of marksmanship with bows and muscle power. They can listen to Viking songs and lectures at the festival, or grab a bite at the Viking Restaurant nearby.


E. Dragon Boat Festival is one of the major holidays in Chinese culture. This summer festival was originally a time to ward off bad spirits, but now it is a celebration of the life of Qu Yuan, who was a Chinese poet of ancient period. Dragon boat festival has been an important holiday for centuries for Chinese culture, but in recent years dragon boat racing has become an international sport.


F. The Mangalica Festival is held in early February at Vajdahunyad Castle in Budapest. It offers the opportunity to experience Hungarian food, music, and other aspects of Hungarian culture. The festival is named for a furry pig indigenous to the region of Hungary and the Balkans. A mangalica is a breed of pig recognizable by its curly hair and known for its fatty flesh. Sausage, cheese and other dishes made with pork can be sampled at the festival.


G. Hanami is an important Japanese custom and is held all over Japan in spring. Hanami literally means «viewing flowers», but now it is a cherry blossom viewing. The origin of hanami dates back to more than one thousand years ago when aristocrats enjoyed looking at beautiful cherry blossoms and wrote poems. Nowadays, people in Japan have fun viewing cherry blossoms, drinking and eating. People bring home-cooked meals, do BBQ, or buy takeout food for hanami.





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1. Reason for extension

2. Presents begin to enrich the collection

3. New collections for the new building

4. New field for the old museum

5. Shift towards history

6. First famous exhibits

7. One on the basis of two

8. Location of the museum


A. The present Ashmolean Museum was created in 1908 by combining two ancient Oxford institutions: the University Art Collection and the original Ashmolean Museum. The older partner in this merger, the University Art Collection, was based for many years in what is now the Upper Reading Room in the Bodleian Library.


B. The collection began modestly in the 1620s with a handful of portraits and curiosities displayed in a small room on the upper floor. In the 17th century there were added notable collections of coins and medals later incorporated into the Ashmolean coin collection. The objects of curiosity included Guy Fawkes' lantern and a sword given by the Pope to Henry VIII, and a number of more exotic items.


C. In the 1660s and 70s, the collection grew rapidly and, in 1683, the Bodleian Gallery was left to develop as a museum of art. At first, it was a gallery of portraits of distinguished contemporaries, but from the mid 1660s, it began to acquire a more historical perspective with the addition of images of people from the past: college founders, scientists, soldiers, monarchs, writers and artists.


D. In the eighteenth century, several painters donated self-portraits. They also added a number of landscapes, historical paintings and scenes from contemporary life. Other donors, former members of the University, added collections of Old Masters so that by the early nineteenth century, it had become an art gallery of general interest and an essential point of call on the tourist map. The public was admitted on payment of a small charge. Catalogues were available at the entrance and the paintings were well displayed in a large gallery.


E. It was only with the gift of a collection of ancient Greek and Roman statuary from the Countess of Pomfret in 1755 that the need for a new art gallery became urgent. The marble figures were too heavy to be placed in an upstairs gallery and were installed in a dark ground-floor room in the library pending the creation of a new museum.


F. Before the new museum was finished, a major group of drawings by Raphael and Michelangelo was purchased by public subscription for the new galleries, establishing the importance of the Oxford museum as a centre for the study of Old Master drawings. The new museum also attracted gifts of paintings. In 1851, a collection of early Italian paintings, which included Uccello's "Hunt in the Forestone of the museum's major works of art was presented.


G. In the 1850s, the University established a new Natural History Museum, which is now known as the Oxford University Museum of Natural History. And all the natural history specimens from the Ashmolean were transferred to the new institution. Having lost what had become the most important element in its collection, the Ashmolean was to find a major new role in the emerging field of archaeology.





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1. Use of a dead language

2. Violating regulations

3. Careless behaviour

4. Needs protection

5. Reaching a target audience

6. Let the air in

7. Original meaning

8. Using modern technology


A. Distance education or e-learning offers several advantages. Students participating in e-learning programs are often able to set their own schedules and work at their own pace. The learning experience can be supported by multimedia such as videos, interactive websites, and real-time conferencing with experts from anywhere in the world. Additionally, e-learning programs are less expensive than traditional ones.


B. Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm did not expect to create a children's collection of fairy tales. Instead, they wanted to preserve Germany's oral tradition by collecting different stories. Not until several editions of their collection were published did the brothers realize that children were to be a major audience. Once the Brothers Grimm saw this new public, they tried to refine and soften their tales, which had originated centuries earlier as folklore.


C. The five Potter books have sold 250 million copies worldwide in 55 languages, including Latin and Ancient Greek. In Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, J. K. Rowlings uses spells and charms that are largely based on Latin. But one of the most serious spells, Avada Kedavra, may be a variant of «abracadabra». In the Harry Potter series, it is a spell that causes death. Harry Potter is the only one known to have survived it.


D. Critics of the Harry Potter books point out that the main characters who are supposed to be «good» are consistently and regularly portrayed as breaking all manner of ethical rules like those against lying, cheating, and stealing. They also regularly break school rules against behavior like going out at night, using magic in the Muggle world, and so forth.


E. On Christmas Eve of 1968, NASA astronaut William Anders, while orbiting the moon with the Apollo 8 mission, took a photograph that provided a foundation for the modern green movement. His photo shows a small, blue planet Earth peeking over the horizon of the Moon. The image of a small planet, alone in a vast ocean of space, showed billions of people the fragility of our planet and the importance of preserving and protecting Earth.


F. There are many indoor air pollutants that can be harmful. Indoor air can be up to 100 times more polluted than outdoor air. Organic compounds from some paints, carpets, synthetic fabrics and adhesives are a known health hazard, contributing to the disease known as Sick Building Syndrome. Proper technology can help — open windows to let fresh air in and bad air out.


G. Some people, especially in rural areas, burn their trash in pits or barrels. It seems an easy way to get rid of your garbage, but the smoke it creates has a lot of really unhealthy toxic chemicals. Burning things like foam cups, plastics, and colored and bleached paper in backyards or even fireplaces causes toxic smoke that can spread throughout the neighborhood.




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1. How It All Began

2. Equal Rights for Comics!

3. European And Asian Varieties

4. No Longer Just for Children

5. Spider-Man Forever!

6. Time of Great Change

7. They Don’t Know What They Are Talking About

8. Birth of a Hero


A. Comic books are an important part of pop culture and loved by many. Just look at how many Hollywood films are based on superhero comics such as Spider- Man, Batman, Superman and others! However, some people mistakenly assume they are only for children or that they are only about superheroes. There are many wrong ideas about comics, and they often come from people who have never even read them.


B. Comics first appeared in the USA in the early 1900's as comic strips in newspapers. They were called 'comics' because they were about comical characters. Later they included adventure and crime stories and other genres, and became serialized. The more popular ones were printed in book format and were called comic books. These were especially common during the Great Depression. But they were often criticized for being 'literature for the illiterate'.


C. Comic books about crime fighters and criminals were in demand in the 1930's. One of them, Detective Comics, had a series about a man who dressed up as a bat to fight criminals. Fans loved him so much that eventually he had his own comic book and became known as Batman. Due to his success, other superheroes were soon invented. Superhero comics continued to grow in popularity and are now what people often associate comics with.


D. In the 1960's comic book writers began to experiment more. Some explored genres and themes not usually used for comics, others experimented with artwork, using more sophisticated styles. In the 70's and 80's these trends intensified and even the format changed. In 1978 Will Eisner wrote A Contract with God, the first full book length comic. Such works were no longer called comic books, but graphic novels.


E. Nowadays there are a great variety of comic books that are radically different from the original comic strips in newspapers. They have also become more acceptable in society: earlier, if you were not a child but were interested in comics, you were looked down upon and could be called a geek or a nerd; now comic books have become largely mainstream. Comic book conventions where fans gather and even dress up as their favorite superheroes are very popular.


F. The USA is not the only country with a history of comic books. France and Japan have their own unique traditions. In France, comics are known as bandes desslnees and in Japan, manga. Each of these has its own style and history of development. The highly stylized Japanese manga characters with big eyes and brightly colored spiky hair have become just as popular around the world as comics in the west.


G. The medium of comics will undoubtedly continue to grow. Over time, the stereotypes that surround them will hopefully change. There is no reason for comics to be any different from other media such as books, films or paintings. Comics, like these other formats, will always produce bestsellers of little artistic merit, but there will also be masterpieces equivalent to great works of art or high literature.






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1. Just Do It!

2. Just What the Doctor Ordered

3. Dangerous Consequences

4. Source of the Problem

5. Take It Easy!

6. Hard to Guess the Meaning

7. The Devil Is Not So Black As He is Painted

8. A Hidden Problem


A. You can often find articles and books addressing the problem of procrastination. If you don't know this word, you might think it was a terrible disease. In reality, procrastination can be defined as a bad habit of doing something less important in order to avoid doing something more important. People procrastinate in many different areas, but we will focus on procrastinating at school, where it is a frequent problem.


B. Procrastination at school can lead to poor grades, low test scores, and finally not getting into a good university. Another negative result of procrastination is the stress of waiting to the last minute to do something. This can lead to staying up all night to prepare for a test. Also, the constant stress of having something hanging over your head, being scolded and criticized by teachers and parents can lead to feelings of guilt and worthlessness.


C. Usually it is very obvious when somebody is procrastinating, for example, playing video games instead of doing homework. Sometimes, however, it can be less obvious. Sharpening your pencils and cleaning your desk may fool some people into thinking you are working hard, but can also be forms of procrastination. Some pupils are even able to fool themselves into thinking they are working, when they are just trying to avoid real work.


D. It is not always clear why people procrastinate. Some are just lazy or don't have enough willpower, but there may be other reasons, perfectionism for one. Some people are afraid that they will be judged by others as failures if their work is less than perfect. For example, a pupil may fear the judgment of parents and teachers on a school report. According to psychologists, this fear of failure may be a cause of procrastination.


E. Although it is difficult, there are ways to stop procrastinating. One way of doing it is to find out why you are procrastinating and deal with those problems. If you are a perfectionist, try to do the task quickly and not worry about it being perfect. Another solution, especially when the task seems too big, is to break it into smaller steps and do those one by one. This may lessen the desire to procrastinate.


F. Still, procrastinating can be a good thing. For those who spend much more time working on a project than is necessary, waiting until the last minute can be a more economical use of time. Also, some people while procrastinating do things that are creative or useful in other ways. Finally, a certain amount of procrastination is part of human nature. Feeling guilty about it can be worse and more damaging than the procrastination itself.


G. Procrastination is also a popular subject of laughter in films and TV shows and there are many coffee mugs, cartoons, and notebooks covered with jokes about it. Though many people consider it a serious psychological problem and even view it as a kind of disease, others laugh about it and are even proud to be procrastinators







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1. A step to a wider variety

2. Varieties of theatre

3. Modern problems

4. Theatre and politics

5. Origin of theatre

6. Ladies enter

7. Not the least important

8. Stars for a repertoire


A. Modern Western theatre comes in large measure from ancient Greek drama, from which it takes technical terminology, classification into genres, and many of its themes, stock characters, and plot elements. The Greeks also developed the concepts of dramatic criticism, acting as a career, and theatre architecture. The theatre of ancient Greece consisted of three types of drama: tragedy, comedy, and the satyr play.


B. Western theatre developed and expanded considerably under the Romans. The Roman historian Livy wrote that the Romans first experienced theatre in the 4th century BC. The theatre of ancient Rome was a thriving and diverse art form, ranging from festival performances of street theatre, nude dancing, and acrobatics, to the staging of broadly appealing situation comedies, to the highstyle, verbally elaborate tragedies.


C. Theatre took on many different forms in the West between the 15th and 19th centuries, including commedia dell’arte and melodrama. The general trend was away from the poetic drama of the Greeks and the Renaissance and toward a more naturalistic prose style of dialogue, especially following the Industrial Revolution. Theatre today, broadly defined, includes performances of plays and musicals, ballets, operas and various other forms.


D. The eighteenth century in Britain introduced women to the stage, which would have been extremely inappropriate before. These women were looked at as celebrities but on the other hand, it was still very new and revolutionary that they were on the stage and some said they were unladylike and looked down n. Charles II did not like young men playing the parts of young women, so he asked that women play their own parts.


E. Theatre took a big pause during 1642 and 1660 in England because of Cromwell’s Interregnum. Theatre was seen as something sinful and the Puritans tried very hard to drive it out of their society. Because of this stagnant period, once Charles II came back to the throne in 1660, theatre (among other arts) exploded because of a lot of influence from France, where Charles was in exile the years previous to his reign.


F. Stagecraft is a term referring to the technical aspects of theatrical, film, and video production. It includes constructing scenery, hanging and focusing of lighting, design and procurement of costumes, makeup, props, stage management, and recording and mixing of sound. Considered a technical rather than an artistic field, it is equally crucial for the practical implementation of a designer’s artistic idea.


G. While most modern theatre companies rehearse one piece of theatre at a time, perform that piece for a set “run”, retire the piece, and begin rehearsing a new show, repertory companies rehearse multiple shows at one time. Repertory theatre generally involves a group of similarly accomplished actors, and relies more on the reputation of the group than on an individual star actor.




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1. Water-related diseases

2. Personal measure

3. Ways of using

4. More than survival

5. Physical characteristics

6. Worrying statistics

7. Hard to get

8. Natural threats


A. Water is the most important resource for mankind. It is a condition for all life on our planet, a factor for any social and technological development, a possible source of welfare or misery, cooperation or conflict. 97 percent of it is undrinkable because it’s saltwater. Only 3 percent of the world’s water supply is fresh water, and 77 percent of that is frozen. Of the 23 percent that is not frozen, only a half a percent is available to supply everyone with all the water they need to survive.


B. Natural disasters like earthquakes, tornados, hurricanes and other types of incidents can disrupt drinking water and wastewater systems. Water consumers, water and wastewater utilities, and private well and septic owners should be informed on what to do in emergency. It is important to be prepared because drinking water and wastewater disruptions can directly threaten your health, the health of your family, and the health of your community.


C. Water security is about fighting poverty and hunger, and protecting the environment. It is about saving children from disease. It is about allowing girls to go to school instead of walking kilometers to fetch water. It is about providing women and men with access to sanitation, wherever they live. Fundamentally, it is about peace. When we talk about water security, we are really talking about human rights, human dignity, and the development of all societies.


D. Water is the only substance that occurs naturally as a solid (ice), a liquid and a gas (water vapor). It covers about 70 percent of the Earth for approximately 1,386 million cubic kilometers. In its purest form, it’s odorless, nearly colorless and tasteless. Water molecules are naturally attracted and stick to each other like magnets. This is the reason behind many of water’s special properties, such as the fact that it’s denser in its liquid state than in its solid state (ice floats on water).


E. You use water to clean yourself, your clothes, your dishes, your car and everything else around you. You can travel on it or jump in it to cool off on hot summer days. Many of the products that you use every day contain water or were manufactured using it. It seems pretty simple, and yet there are a lot of things about it that scientists still don’t fully understand.


F. Every day you lose water. For your body to function properly, you must replenish its water supply. So how much fluid does the average, healthy adult living in a temperate climate need? The Institute of Medicine determined that an adequate intake for men is roughly 3 liters a day. The intake for women is 2.2 liters a day. But in truth, your water needs depend on many factors, including your health, how active you are and where you live.


G. Around 1.1 billion people globally do not have access to clean water supply sources whereas 2.4 billion people do not have bathrooms with running water. About 2 million people die every year due to water-related diseases, most of them are children less than 5 years of age. The most affected are people in developing countries, living in extreme conditions of poverty.




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1. When we don’t sleep

2. Not only for humans

3. How dreaming helps

4. When we dream

5. Why dreams can be scary

6. What we feel dreaming

7. How we forget dreams

8. How we remember dreams


A. Even though our dreams may feel like they last for hours and hours, we hardly spend more than two hours dreaming each night, which means a person spends a total of nearly six years dreaming throughout a lifetime. In general there are four phases of the sleep cycle and all dreaming occurs practically at the final phase. Each of these sleep cycles lasts approximately 60 to 90 minutes and may repeat several times throughout the night.


B. Anxiety is the most popular emotion experienced in dreams. Many people dream of falling, which is often connected to something in our lives that is going in the wrong direction. In addition, dreams of being chased are very common and are linked to avoidance. Also people report dreams about their teeth falling out, which is related to the words and communication we might have in real life.


C. Dreaming helps people make sense of the information and events that occur in their lives. Dreams play an important role in processing and remembering information that we absorb daily. Also, they help reduce stress and even solve problems. It’s very possible to work through real-life problems while dreaming at night. In addition, dreams provide a lot of important content and meaning that can be used to inspire and direct our lives during the day.


D. Nearly 5 to 10% of adults have nightmares. There are several reasons for it, for example when people start taking certain medications or when they withdraw from drugs. Some physical conditions, such as stress or illness, can also be a trigger. However, in some cases adults may have frequent nightmares that are unrelated to their everyday lives, which may signify that they are more creative, sensitive, and emotional than the average person.


E. There is no person who does not have dreams, but not everybody recalls them. The most vivid dreams happen during the Rapid Eye Movement sleep stage when the brain is extremely active and the eyes move back and forth quickly underneath the eyelids. Although dream recall varies from person to person, some people have little or no recollection of the content, and around 90% of dreams are gone following the first 10 minutes of waking up.


F. Scientists have found that animals also dream and their subconscious thoughts are connected to real experiences. Animals’ dreams are complex, containing long sequences of events. Animals’ brains share the same series of sleeping states as the brain of human beings. Analyzing animals’ dreams and the content of their dreams may help scientists treat memory disorders and develop new ways for people to learn and retain information more effectively.


G. Only five minutes after the end of a dream and half of the content is likely to vanish from our memories. It’s not that dreams aren’t important enough to keep in mind, but other things tend to get in the way. Dream researcher L. Strumpell believes that dreams disappear from our memories for a number of factors. For example, we may not recall dream images that lack intensity, association or repetition, which are usually needed for dream recall.





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1. Controversies and developments

2. Difficult to find the difference

3. Good for various spheres of life

4. Keeping viewers glued to a TV set

5. Unusual commercials

6 . Time is money

7 . Fairer chances for business

8. The appearance of TV advertising


A. For about seventy years TV has been used as a vehicle for advertising in some countries . Since the late 1940s, television commercials have become far and away the most effective and most popular method of selling products of all sorts. The radio advertising industry was well-established when television made its debut in the 1940s, and television was developed as a commercial medium, based upon the successful format of the radio.


B. In the earliest days of television, it was often difficult to understand whether you watch actual television programmes or commercials. Many of the earliest television shows were sponsored by single companies, who inserted their names and products into the shows as much as possible. For example, Texaco employees appeared during the show to perform while the Texaco musical logo would play in the background.


C. Another important milestone came in the 1960s with the introduction of very short commercial breaks during a TV show. Now it was possible for several companies to use a popular programme as an advertising platform together. It was one of the most efficient ways of marketing, and companies like Tide and Crest took it as an opportunity to expand their ad campaigns.


D. In the 1970s, the broadcast of television advertisements which promoted cigarettes was banned by the administration. This resulted in a conflict between the government and television networks, as for them these ads constituted a significant portion of the total revenue. The period between the 1970s and the 1990s was marked by the increase of the time of commercial breaks from 9 to 19 minutes or the debut of celebrities advertising brand products.


E. Today the vast majority of television commercials consist of brief advertising spots, ranging in length from a few seconds to several minutes. Commercials of this sort have been used to sell literally every product imaginable over the years, from household products to goods and services, to political campaigns. It is considered impossible for a politician to wage a successful election campaign without airing a good television commercial.


F. The brief commercial "breaks" that interrupt shows regularly are the primary reason for the existence of modern-day television networks. The programming is intended to capture the attention of the audience so that they will not want to change the channel; instead, they will (hopefully) watch the commercials while waiting for the next segment of the show. Entire industries exist that focus solely on the task of keeping the viewing audience interested enough to sit through commercials.


G. The TV commercial is generally considered the most effective mass-market advertising format, and this is reflected by the high prices TV networks charge for commercial airtime during popular TV events. The ratings systems determine how successful television shows are, so that they can decide what rates to charge advertisers for their commercial airtime. For example, a single thirty-second TV spot in prime time may cost up to $2 million.




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1. Different pets, different characters

2. Having fun together

3. A long-term treatment

4. Reading dog stories

5. Friends in need

6. Pets can teach

7. A global problem and its solution

8. Where to get a pet


A. It has become clear that stress affects our mental and physical health and, sadly, our world has become more stressful than ever. We live in the environment that can easily wear us out. Luckily, there are certain methods to reduce stress and have control. One of the best is to own a pet. Pets require attention and dedication, but those are small prices to pay for the amount of benefits they bring into our lives.


B. Pets provide support because they are always available to listen (without any judgment) or rub up against your hand, which can help you relax after a hectic day. They can help you see the situation differently and let out some steam.

Moreover, when you are feeling under the weather, there is nothing like a sweet pair of eyes that immediately get your mind off thoughts that are making you sad and depressed.


C. Companionship with a loving pet is a real source of entertainment. Pets are constantly giving off love and gratitude, and they are happy to be in your presence. You can be yourself around pets. You can dance silly or talk silly, and they will not criticize you. In fact, they will love the silliness and get silly themselves. Cats and dogs are fantastic companions to sit down and watch TV at night.


D. Studies have shown that communicating with a pet boosts the immune system, improves heart health, reduces physical pain, and improves mental health as well. One man with tuberculosis says that the cat he received after his diagnosis kept him going for 21 years with little pain and very few physical issues. He talked to his cat which helped him walk through his troubles. That proves the power of true love that animals have.


E. Pets are living creatures that have habits and personalities. They can surprise you. Dogs, cats, and birds are probably most known for having distinct personalities. However, one snake owner says that her snake had his own unique personality. He got excited when she came into the room, and she would often put him in the bathtub where he would do all sorts of funny tricks while splashing around.


F. No matter what type of pet you get, it will require you to take care of it. Being responsible for another living being can help you be more responsible in the rest of your life too. This is especially true for kids who are learning the value of good habits. However, adults can benefit from the consistent responsibility as well. Responsible pet owners are kind to pets and remember they are their pets’ world.


G. With millions of cats and dogs killed in shelters in the United States every year, adopting a pet instead of buying one saves at least one animal’s life. Adoption saves not only the animal you adopt, but also the new animal the shelter can take in. Adopting from a shelter helps both ends of the problem: fewer animals will be bred, and more animals can go to a good home.




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1. Travel memories

2. Animal lover magazine

3. Travel to stars

4. Star dreams

5. Popular hobby

6. Family magazine

7. People and nature

8. Animals in danger


A. Most people who spend a holiday travelling take a camera with them and photograph anything that interests them – sights of a city, views of mountains, lakes, waterfalls, men and women, children, ruins of ancient buildings, and even birds and animals. Later looking through their albums they will remember the happy time they have had, the islands, сountries and cities they have seen.


B. Of course, different people dream of different things. Someone wishes a calm and quiet life; others imagine their life as a never-ending adventure. The majority dream of something concrete: a villa in some warm place, an account in a Swiss bank, a splendid car… It’s interesting to know what the dreams of people who already have all this are. Celebrities, as we know, never hide their unusual hobbies, and often shock us with their extravagant behaviour.


C. It is Junior Baseball Magazine’s mission to provide information that enhances the youth baseball experience for the entire family. The player improves his skills and is more successful. The family enjoys the activity more and shares this precious time in their life. Junior Baseball emphasizes good sportsmanship, safety, physical fitness and wholesome family values.


D. The seas are in danger. They are filled with poison like industrial, nuclear and chemical waste. The Mediterranean Sea is already nearly dead; the North Sea is following it. The Aral Sea is on the brink of extinction. If nothing is done about it, one day nothing will be able to live in the seas. Every ten minutes one species of animal, plant or insect dies out forever.


E. Lots of people all over the world enjoy collecting stamps. Stamps are like little pictures. Very often they show the flowers or the trees which grow in this or

that country, or they can show different kinds of transport of the country. Stamps may also have portraits of famous people on them. Some stamps show art work from the history of the country.


F. “Friend” is the title of my favourite magazine. It consists of 70 pages, with lots of colourful and bright pictures and provides interesting and useful information for people who love animals. The magazine includes numerous articles devoted to various topics connected with domestic animals, ways to take care of them, pet food, animal health and many other topics crucial for any animal lover.


G. People are beginning to realize that environmental problems are not just somebody else’s. Many people join and support various international organizations and green parties. What could be more important than human life? Polluted air, poisoned water, wastelands, noise, smoke – all these influence not only nature but people as well. Everything should be done to improve ecological conditions on our planet.





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1. For information and urgent help

2. World without buttons

3. To monitor and treat the disease

4. A built-in charger

5. Key under your skin

6. Big brother is watching you

7. Disadvantages of tech

8. Phone always on you


A. Sure, we’re virtually connected to our phones 24/7 now, but what if we could be literally plugged in to our phones? That’s already starting to happen. Last year, for instance, artist Anthony Antonellis had a chip put in his arm that could store and transfer data to his handheld smartphone. And researchers are already experimenting with sensors that turn human bone into living speakers.

B. In the future patients will be able to use implantable technologies to diagnose and even treat diseases. Scientists in London are developing swallowable capsule-sized chip that will control fat levels in obese patients and generate genetic material that makes them feel “full”. It has potential as an alternative to surgery to handle obesity. Also it can monitor blood-sugar levels for diabetics.

C. The U.S. military has programs to identify any person using face scanning device. Some people see it as a doubtless advantage: improved crime fighting, secure elections and never a lost child again. However, such technologies can hammer against social norms and raise privacy issues. And one day there might be a computer to see all, know all and control all.

D. One of the challenges for implantable tech is delivering power to devices which are inside human bodies. You can’t plug them in as you do with your phone or computer. You can’t easily take them out to replace a battery. A team in Cambridge is working on specific bio batteries that can generate power inside the body, transfer it wirelessly where needed, and then simply melt away.

E. Soon tattoos will not only make you look cool but will be able to perform useful tasks, like opening your car or entering smartphone codes with a fingerpoint. Researchers have made an implantable skin fibers thinner than a human hair. Scientists are working on the chip that can be put inside a finger through a tattoo-like process, letting you unlock things or enter codes simply by pointing.

F. The British research team is developing pills with microprocessors in them that can text to hospitals directly from inside your body. The pills can share inside info to help doctors know if you are taking your medication properly and if it is having the desired effect. Moreover, in case of emergency, it can send a signal to the computer and the ambulance will come straight away.

G. Lately touchscreens are everywhere – from computers, phones, tablets to car systems and vending machines. Even doorbells now include touch screen controls. One has to wonder: are we moving to a world of only touchscreen devices? And the answer is probably yes. We are coming to an age where every flat or even curved surface could be made a touchscreen and we can operate from it.




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1. A good source of information

2. From elitist knowledge to democratic usage

3. The revival of letter writing

4. A beautiful tradition lost

5. Making it quick and efficient

6. The victory of technology

7. Beauty is forever

8. As long as you can write on it!


A. There is something pleasant about receiving a handwritten letter from a friend. It is also very enjoyable to write a letter — choosing the paper and envelope, writing with a favourite pen, and the satisfying closure of licking the envelope and putting on a stamp. Unfortunately, since the widespread use of email, not many people write and send letters any more. The history of letter writing, however, is very interesting.

B. Before the invention of the postal service, letters were delivered on foot by couriers. The ancient Greeks used athletic runners for that. Later, horses were used because they were faster and could be changed at various stations. The Romans developed this system into a postal service. The Latin word 'positus' meant carriers, and that is where the English word 'post' comes from.

C. The material of letter writing has changed over time. Originally, people wrote on clay tablets. Later the Egyptians started using papyrus, a plant that grows in the river. The English word 'paper' comes from this plant. In the West, paper was produced from animal skins. In medieval times, the Saxons used the bark of the beech tree, called bok. This is where the English word 'book' comes from.

D. Literacy has had a big effect on letter writing: if you can't read you can't write letters! Before the 15t century letter writing was restricted to governments, the church, and the aristocracy. After the invention of the printing press that made books cheaper, literacy was greatly increased. Ordinary people started writing letters and it became the most popular and the only way of long distance communication until the invention of the telegraph in 1837.

E. Much of what we know of the lives of people long dead comes from personal letters. Certainly books have provided historical information about the Ancient Greek and Roman civilizations, but much of what we know of daily life from these periods comes from letters. Modern biographers get most of their information about the famous people they are writing about from their correspondence.

F. In the 18th and 19th centuries, letter writing was considered an art and essential part of life. People wrote not only to keep in touch but also as a method of literary expression, as a work of art, and conformed to conventions of etiquette and form. Literary figures wrote letters knowing that they would be read in the future by historians, and one day might be published. There were even novels consisting of a series of letters, known as the epistolary novel.

G. Even after the telephone became a common fixture in homes, people continued to write letters. What killed the letter was the widespread use of email, and the development of texting and chatting on social media. This type of communication holds many advantages. You don't need to worry about the hassle of paper, envelopes, stamps, and going to the mailbox. It is also possible to get an instant reply.




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1. Climbing with experienced helpers

2. Dangers from natural disasters

3. Surrounded by sacred woods

4. Impossible to climb in the cold season

5. More than one summit

6. Offering a well-equipped climb

7. Preferred by solo climbers

8. Possible health problems


A. Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world and probably the best known. It is part of the Himalaya range on the Nepal-Tibet border. It attracts experienced mountaineers as well as beginners to complete a successful climb. The route to the summit takes from 10 to 12 hours. The mountain, while not posing substantial technical climbing difficulty on the standard route, still has many dangers, such as altitude sickness, due to the lack of oxygen.

B. K2 is the second highest mountain in the world after Mount Everest. K2 is known as the Savage Mountain due to the difficulty of ascent and has the second highest climber fatality rate among the 8000-meter peaks. This is the reason why K2 has never been climbed in winter. Standing over 3,000 metres above the glacial valley bottoms, it is famous for its relief. K2 is a consistently steep pyramid, dropping in almost all directions.

C. Kangchenjunga is the third highest mountain in the world. It has an enormous mass with numerous satellite peaks along its ridges. The word 'Kangchenjunga' means 'The Five Treasures of Snows', as it contains five peaks, four of them over 8,450 metres. The huge massif of Kangchenjunga is supported by great ridges forming a giant 'X'. These ridges contain majestic peaks between six and eight thousand metres.

D. Lhotse is the fourth highest mountain in the world and is connected to Everest via the South Col. Lhotse has been the scene of many failed attempts and some notable fatalities. Only an expert team of guides and Sherpa can make the ascent possible. Sherpa are local people, who are regarded as elite mountaineers and experts in the Himalayas. They are valuable to explorers because they have a genetic adaptation to living in high altitudes.

E. Manaslu is the eighth highest mountain in the world. Its name means 'Mountain of the Spirit'. Manaslu's long ridges and valley glaciers offer feasible approaches from all directions and culminate in a peak that towers steeply above the surrounding landscape and is visible from a far. Full of untouched forests, the Manaslu Valley is fantastic. Tourists called it the Garden of Eden because of Buddhist prohibitions on hunting.

F. Nanga Parbat, which is the ninth highest mountain in the world, is a truly awesome spectacle. The name means 'Naked Mountain' in Hindi. Known as the 'Killer Mountain', Nanga Parbat was one of the deadliest for climbers. The route was dangerously prone to avalanche and exposed to bad weather. March is the riskiest of all months. Winters transitioning into summers cause numerous avalanches on Nanga Parbat.

G. Shishapangma is one of the easiest eight-thousanders to climb due to its location entirely within Tibet. Organized climbing is cautious and careful, with excellent leadership, ‘walkie-talkie’ radios, satellite telephones, the best oxygen bottles and apparatus available. For trekkers’ comfort, there are also yak caravans carrying heavy things, tasty food, individual tents for each member, and a full kitchen in basecamp.




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1. Look to your past

2. Health benefits of hobbies

3. Finding a hobby that suits you

4. Dangerous hobby

5. Time out with a purpose

6. Finding time for your hobby

7. Making new friends

8. Finding excitement


A. Hobbies provide work-free and responsibility-free time in your schedule. This can be especially useful for people who feel stressed by all that they have to do and need to recharge their batteries. For some of us it may be difficult to give ourselves permission to just sit and relax. Having a hobby, however, can provide a break and help people feel that they’re not just ‘sitting around’ but are using their free time for something productive.

B. Are there things you enjoyed as a child that you might still enjoy as an adult? Maybe you had a fantastic record collection, loved to make clothes for your dolls or were always out on your bike. Those are all things you could pick up again as an adult that would make great hobbies. Or there may be hobbies in your home right now that you started but have recently forgotten about. Maybe it’s time to finish that crochet project or pick up the guitar again.

C. If you’re adding a new thing into your life, you have to take time and focus away from something else. The good news is that most of us have a lot of time we’re not using well, either because we’re spending a lot of time online or watching TV or just wasting time we could be spending on our hobbies. See if you can spend a half hour or so every other day to explore your interest. This way it would be best in case you find that hobby isn’t for you after all.

D. Of course, everyone is different and your personality does play a role in what sorts of hobbies you’ll like. If you don’t have a lot of patience you might feel that knitting is too much for you, but exploring quick sewing projects might be a better choice. Maybe you really like being with friends, so you need to take a class or have an interest that you can do with a group. If you travel a lot, something portable or that you can do anywhere is helpful.

E. One study found that those who engage in physical leisure activities for at least 20 minutes once a week are less likely to have a fatigue. Other research found that enjoyable activities performed during leisure time were associated with lower blood pressure, total cortisol, and body mass index, and feelings of better physical function. Such activities were also associated with higher levels of positive psychosocial states and lower levels of depression.

F. When you look for material or equipment for your hobby, you are likely to find people who have the same hobby as you. You may be surprised to know how serious some people are about their hobbies and therefore would have great knowledge of their chosen pastime. Instead of meeting people from your work or college or those whom you have grown apart with, it is a great way to meet people with whom you have something in common.

G. For those who aren’t very stressed and may actually be understimulated, hobbies provide a nice source of eustress, the healthy kind of stress that we all need to remain feeling happy about life. If the rest of your life is somewhat dull or uninspiring, hobbies can provide meaning and fun, and can break up a boring schedule, without feeling like work. In other words, hobbies can provide just the right amount of challenge.




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1. Unhealthy eating habits

2. Correcting mother nature

3. The turning point

4. The solution

5. Simple lifestyles

6. Summer all year round

7. Unnatural lasts longer

8. A tricky question


A. Have you ever wondered where our food comes from? The obvious answer is that it comes from the supermarket. However, that still doesn't answer the question because nowadays, it can come from anywhere on the planet. In addition, we have no idea how some of the food products we buy, such as hot dogs or cookies, are made. For us, food is sometimes a mystery.

B. Long ago, things were not so mysterious. Our ancestors would have known exactly where their food had come from. When we were hunters and gatherers, we ate what we killed or gathered with our own hands. Later as farmers, we grew or raised the food that we ate. If we didn't grow it ourselves, it would have come from a nearby farm or at the furthest, a neighboring village.

C. Beginning in the late 15th century, during the development of trade with India and America everything changed. Explorers discovered exotic kinds of food such as potatoes, tomatoes, pumpkins and chocolate, and introduced them to Europe. Although they are common now, people back then were suspicious and even thought they might be poisonous. All of a sudden, what you were eating was not so obvious.

D. In recent times, technology and modern forms of transportation have changed things even more. Food can be shipped from one side of the planet to the other, and refrigeration means that we don't have to worry about things spoiling. As a result, the whole idea of seasonal fruits and vegetables has lost its meaning and it no longer seems strange to eat strawberries in winter. Exotic fruits have become common, and many people have no idea where they come from.

E. Advances in food science and chemistry have changed food even more. Processed foods such as cookies, cereal, spaghetti sauces and soft drinks are made in factories with chemicals. The reason this is done is to save money since natural ingredients cost much more than artificial ones. It's also done to increase the shelf life, meaning the time that the products can remain on the shelves of the supermarket without going bad.

F. Even if you avoid eating processed foods, you still can't be sure what you are eating. Farming practices have changed beyond recognition and farms are often run like a factory. Animals are injected with hormones to make them fat and fruits and vegetables are genetically modified to produce 'improved' versions. In addition, chemical fertilizers and pesticides are regularly sprayed on plants. The health effects of this are not yet known and have yet to be seen.

G. So what can you do? The main thing you can do is educate yourself so that you know exactly what you are eating. Read the labels carefully and know what chemical ingredients are harmful. Try to buy organic fruits and vegetables that are grown naturally or buy them from local farmers' markets. By being aware and selective of the food that we buy, we can be more certain of what we are eating, enjoy more delicious food, as well as make sure we are eating healthily.




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1. Reasons to be afraid

2. Fight your fear

3. A place of wonders

4. How to say thank you

5. Visiting for wild life and animals

6. Learn to be grateful

7. It’s never late to learn

8. Reading non-verbal language


A. Nowadays when it’s all too easy to send an email or text, the best way to show that you are grateful to somebody is to actually mail a hand-written card. The person who gets it will know you took the extra time and thought to write a card and put it in the mail with a nice stamp. That person will appreciate your efforts much more. Plus, you’ll get the added bonus of feeling grateful a little longer than usual as you write out each note and wait for it to arrive.

B. Music is a noble passion, and people who can play a musical instrument have always been seen as intelligent people. Learning how to play a musical instrument is far more efficient if you do it in childhood. However, there are millions of adults who learn to enjoy music throughout their lives. Moreover, they don’t focus on just one instrument, but specialize in two or even more, if they have the time and the necessary ambition.

C. Millions of people avoid air travel each year because of their fear of flying. The fear of accidents happening is probably the most common fear among air travellers. It is an understandable fear, since there have been many aviation accidents throughout history. Some people may have a fear that the plane has some type of malfunction or breakdown, while others may have a fear that the weather or turbulance will affect the plane.

D. Try to understand that being scared is just an illusion that makes you limited and miserable. Take control of your mind and don’t let your imagination create frightening pictures in your head. If you cannot deal with it, you should make attempts to leave your comfort zone. Choose things and activities you are afraid of and meet your worries face to face, because it is impossible to run away from them. Just face your troubles no matter how powerful they may seem.

E. When you get chronically bored with something, your mind gets used to seeing the world negatively. It is necessary to break the chain of negative thoughts and train your mind to notice the best. Just write down 5 things you are thankful for. This way, your mind will change for the better in a while. The thankfulness will open your eyes to the beauty of the world around you and will help you to focus on positive moments in your life.

F. If you go to Ireland, go to isolated distant places in the country, talk to the locals and they will tell you the stories about the mythical Irish place, called the Otherworld. They believe that it is the land of paradise and happiness. In Irish poetry and tales, it is described as a series of islands near Ireland where the various fairytale creatures lived. Also the Otherworld seemed to be able to move from one location to another.

G. Many people can understand the nature of character without talking to the person they are interested in. The gestures and postures usually reflect the mood and the level of the person’s confidence. It’s easy to notice a highly confident person even in a big group of people. They stand in one place without constant moving from place to place, and they always make eye contact with the person they are talking to.




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1. A shop that inspired writers

2. Country’s brave defenders

3. A truly international place

4. Governesses of rich children

5. Birth of a popular sport

6. Textile business links

7. A nice-sounding building

8. The initial steps of commerce


A. Moscow has always been a multicultural city. If we look back at its history, we will see that there were several foreign communities living in Moscow on a permanent basis. We all know about German people inhabiting the banks of the Yauza river, where little Peter, the future tsar of all Russia, ran around, made friends and got his first ideas of learning about ships and fleets. But what do we know about the British community of Moscow? Did it even exist?

B. The first ties between Russia and Britain were formed in the middle of the 16th century in the time of Ivan the Terrible. It was then that some wealthy British merchants founded the Muscovy Company which held a monopoly on trade between Britain and Russia until 1698. The building of its Moscow headquarters was granted to the company by the tsar in 1556 and can be still visited at 4, Varvarka Street, known to us now as The Old English Court.

C. Beginning from the time of Peter the Great, several talented British military men moved to Russia. Many of them served as army generals and navy admirals, defending Russian borders in different wars and battles. Among the most famous ones were Field Marshall James Bruce, Field Marshall Barclay de Tolly and Admiral Thomas Mackenzie, all of them of Scottish origin.

D. In the 18th century, British industrialists made themselves known in Russia. One of the most outstanding figures was Robert McGill, who lived in Moscow and served as an intermediary between Lancashire mill engineers and the Russian cotton industry, and built over 150 mills (cotton factories) in Russia. Robert McGill had a house in Spiridonovka Street and together with his wife Jane was a prominent member of the British community in Moscow.

E. If you talk to Moscow concert musicians who were active between the 1960s and the 1990s, they will tell you of the fantastic acoustics of the “Melodiya” recording studio at 8, Voznesensky Lane, which they lovingly called ‘kirche’, mistakenly thinking it was a German church. This building, designed in the English neo-gothic architectural style, was in fact built in 1885 by Robert McGill and is St. Andrew’s Anglican Church, which was used as a recording studio in Soviet times.

F. Another spectacular example of British architecture in Moscow is the old building of TsUM next to the Bolshoy and Maly theatres. Built in the early 1900s, it was back then the biggest department store in Moscow. It was owned by Scottish merchants Andrew Muir and Archie Mirrielees. Mayakovsky mentions Muir&Mirrielees in several of his poems, while Chekhov named his dogs after its two owners.

G. In 1887, two other cotton industrialists from Lancashire, Clement and Harry Charnock, moved to work at a cotton factory in Orekhovo-Zuevo, near Moscow. They were both great football fans and decided to introduce this game to the workers of the factory. This resulted in the first professional football team in Russia which after the Revolution became the core of Moscow Dynamo team.




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1. Getting around the city

2. Always in a hurry

3. Unknown side of the city

4. Winning and losing

5. The city of skyscrapers

6. For the holiday and more

7. Saving the variety

8. Nickname for a building


A. New York is really the melting pot of the world. Over 30 percent of its residents have come from abroad. It is believed that the city has the greatest linguistic diversity on the planet. There are over 800 different languages spoken by its people. As some of these languages are nearly extinct, the City University of New York has begun a project called the Endangered Language Alliance. Its aim is to preserve rare languages like Bukhari, Vhlaski, and Ormuri.

B. New Yorkers love to think they know everything about their city: where to find the best fruit, how to avoid paying full price at museums, what route to take to avoid traffic. But New York City can reveal new treasures even to its veterans. Beyond the city where New-Yorkers work, eat, play and commute every day lies a hidden New York: mysterious, forgotten, abandoned or just overlooked. There are places about which you’re not likely to read in any guidebook.

C. The Chrysler Building was in a race with the Bank of Manhattan for getting the title of the tallest skyscraper in the world. The Bank was likely to triumph, with its height of 282 meters. But the spire of the Chrysler Building was constructed in secret inside the tower. Just one week after the Bank of Manhattan was finished, it was put in place, making it 318 meters tall and beating the Bank. It wouldn’t keep this title for long: one year later the Empire State Building was erected.

D. The Flatiron Building was constructed between 1901 and 1903 at the intersection of Broadway and Fifth Avenue. It was designed by Chicago’s Daniel Burnham as a steel-frame skyscraper covered with white terra-cotta. Built as the headquarters of the Fuller Construction company, the skyscraper was meant to be named Fuller Building. But locals soon started calling it “Flatiron” because of its unusual shape. The name stuck and soon became


E. How does Rockefeller Center manage to find the perfect fur-tree each Christmas season? They do aerial searches by helicopter, of course, and bring it to the city during the night when there isn’t much traffic on the streets. After the tree is taken down for the year, it continues to be useful. For example, in 2005 Habitat for Humanity used the wood to make doorframes for houses for the poor and in 2012 the paper was used to publish a book.

F. In New York life never stands still. People have to call cabs, ride subway cars, do business of all kinds, eat pizzas and sandwiches for lunch. When you multiply that by more than eight million people in less than 500 square miles, you get the idea: everyone goes everywhere as fast as it is humanly possible. Whatever you do, don't stop in the middle of the sidewalk or you’ll make everyone around you incredibly angry.

G. New York is extremely easy to navigate. Manhattan is divided into numbered streets from north to south and avenues from east to west. It’s almost impossible to get lost there. Buses are useful to travel around Manhattan, and the subway is the best means of transport to the other parts of the city. At some stage you’ll definitely use a yellow taxi. Try to get one on an avenue that’s going in the same direction you are – you’ll save time and money. And don’t forget to leave a tip for the driver.




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1. A lasting relationship

2. An inspirational city

3. An unexpected discovery

4. A brilliant celebration

5. A random birthday

6. Undestroyed beauty

7. The future of the city

8. Not intellectual enough


A. Nobody knows when Moscow first appeared on the face of the earth. It is true that the first mention of Moscow dates back to 1147, but by that time it had probably been around for a while and was big enough to be mentioned in the Russian chronicles. Still, it is convenient to use that date to celebrate Moscow’s anniversaries which we are doing this year – Moscow has turned 870, a respectable age for one of the biggest capitals in the world!

B. Throughout its history, Moscow has been visited by many English speakers. The first British people arrived in Moscow in 1553 by accident. In the age of great geographical discoveries, when Spanish and Portuguese navigators were

sailing the world in search of the shortest way to Asia, British merchants tried to find their own way – through the Arctic. When they were stopped by ice, they turned their ships south and ended up in Russia.

C. Ivan the Terrible was happy to meet the first English merchants and granted them privileges to make trade between Russia and Britain easy. This was how The Muscovy Company appeared in Britain. The Czar even granted them a house near the Kremlin. This solid brick building has survived all the fires of Moscow and can be visited today. In 1994, during Queen Elizabeth’s visit to Moscow, it was turned into a museum – The Old English Court.

D. Mr Francis Pargiter was one of the merchants of The Muscovy Company and visited Moscow in the 1660s. He did not leave a written account of his trip, but his impressions of Moscow were recorded by his friend – Samuel Pepys, a

Member of Parliament who kept a diary. Mr Pargiter described Moscow as ‘a very great city’ but mostly with wooden houses and with very few people playing chess and ‘not a man that speaks Latin’!

E. In 1867, Moscow’s 720th anniversary, a trip to Moscow was undertaken by the author of “Alice in Wonderland”, Lewis Carrol. He described Moscow as a ‘wonderful city, a city of white houses and green roofs, of conical towers that rise one out of another like a telescope; of bulging glided domes, in which you can see as in looking glass, distorted pictures of the city.’ It is believed that the idea of “Through the Looking Glass” came to the writer during his trip to Russia.

F. In 1917, during the restless days of the Revolution, when not many people even remembered Moscow’s 770th anniversary, Moscow was visited by the American journalist John Reed. Among the fires and destroyed buildings, he

was happy to see St. Basil’s Cathedral untouched: ‘Late at night we went through the empty streets to the great Red Square. The church of Vasili Blazheiny loomed fantastic, its bright-coloured cupolas vague in darkness’.

G. In 1947, the American writer John Steinbeck witnessed Moscow’s 800th anniversary celebration. ‘The walls of the Kremlin and its towers were outlined in electric lights. Every public building was floodlighted. In every public square dance stands had been put up, and in some of the squares little booths, made to look like Russian fairy-tale houses, had been erected for sale of sweets, and ice-cream, and souvenirs’, he wrote in his Russian Journal.




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1. Fun in theory, boring in reality

2. Saving rare animals

3. Deficit of activity problems

4. Ready to help

5. Similar sounds — different emotions

6. Benefits of being outdoors

7. Contrary to popular belief

8. Original style


A. In addition to being highly intelligent, elephants are capable of a remarkable amount of empathy. During a natural disaster, elephants are able to understand that something dangerous is happening. They can understand that a person is in

trouble and that the situation is unsafe. Elephants have good sense of smell and there have been cases when they alerted rescuers to people trapped in a building. Elephants have been observed saving their young from drowning and also been filmed trying to save people they see at risk of drowning.

B. A lot of studies suggest that green spaces enhance mental health and learning capacity, both immediately and over time, by lowering stress levels and restoring attention. Greenery restores attention by drawing the eye and at the same time calms the nervous system, creating an ideal state for learning. Similarly, studies show that spending time in the sunlight can reduce attention deficit symptoms, while bright light first thing in the morning can improve mood and the quality of sleep.

C. Why are hyenas known for laughing? There is even a phrase we use: “to laugh like a hyena”. Zoologists will tell you that the unique sounds they make are actually no laughing matter. Hyenas indeed make loud barking noises that sound like laughter, but it’s not because they’re amused by anything. Instead, a hyena’s “laughter” is actually a form of communication used to convey frustration, excitement, or fear. Most often, you’ll hear this unique vocalization during a hunt or when the animals are feeding on prey as a group.

D. Zoologists believe that boredom isn’t a uniquely human emotion — animals can be bored, too. Animals which live in captivity (in zoos, for example) and don’t have to take care of their survival may experience boredom and try to find

ways to overcome it. They may come up with some “creative” activities which they wouldn’t normally do in their natural environment. As for the pets at home, they may also suffer from the lack of stimulation. That’s why we need to make sure we give them enough time, attention and toys regularly.

E. While most dogs jump eagerly into the water to swim, cats don’t usually do that, and many believe that cats have a phobia of water. But some pet groomers insist that it’s not true and getting a cat to trust you enough to bathe is quite possible, with some patience and skill. Most cats are not afraid of water like so many people may think. They are actually afraid of loud noises and of drowning, rather than water itself. Cats drink water every day, lots of cats even play with water or follow people into the shower.

F. Videogame testers spend most of their time testing the game long before it’s finished and long before it starts to become a fun experience. Even after the game is developed enough to start being fun, the testing tasks often aren’t

entertaining at all. Testers may have to walk their character around a forest, for example, to look for trees that aren’t drawn well. They then record the coordinates so an artist can fix them later. It’s monotonous work and can take days to finish. So if testing video games seems like a fun, easy job to you, think again.

G. Claude Monet’s impressionist paintings were all about nature. In his works he tried to capture nature as it appeared to him at the moment. He also experimented with light and shadow and how they changed during different times of the day. Some artists of the time criticized Monet because his works lacked detail and didn’t resemble finished paintings. Monet used strong colours, which he did not mix. He painted them onto the canvas in short brush strokes. He was also criticized for not using classical painting techniques.




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1. Perm’s industry

2. City’s cultural life

3. Natural resource as attraction

4. The greatest achievement

5. Traditionally liberal

6. Beneficial location

7. Where the name comes from

8. Too important to be left alone


A. The word “Perm” first appeared in the 12th century in the Primary Chronicle, the main source describing the early history of the Russian people. The Perm were listed among the people who paid tribute to the Rus. The origin of the word “Perm” remains unclear. Most likely, the word came from the Finno-Ugric languages and meant “far land” or “flat, forested place”. But some local residents say it may have come from Per, a hero and the main character of many local legends.

B. Novgorodian traders were the first to show an interest in Perm. Starting from the 15th century, the Muscovite princes included the area in their plans to create a unified Russian state. During this time the first Russian villages appeared in the northern part of the region. The first industry to appear in the area was a salt factory, which developed on the Usolka river in the city of Solikamsk. Rich salt reserves generated great interest on the part of Russia’s wealthiest merchants, some of whom bought land there.

C. The history of the modern city of Perm starts with the development of the Ural region by Tsar Peter the Great. Perm became the capital of the region in 1781 when the territorial structure of the country was reformed. A special commission determined that the best place would be at the crossroads of the Trans-Siberian Railroad, which runs east-west and the Kazan line, which runs north-south. This choice resulted in Perm becoming a major trade and industrial centre. The city quickly grew to become one of the biggest in the region.

D. Perm is generally stable and peaceful, so the shocks of 1917 did not reach it right away. Neither did they have the same bloody results as in Petrograd. Perm tried to distance itself from the excesses and did not share the enthusiasm

for change of its neighbours. Residents supported more moderate parties. They voted for the establishment of a west European style democracy in Russia. Unfortunately, the city could not stay completely unaffected, as both the White

and the Red armies wanted its factories.

E. Perm’s desire for stability and self-control made the region seem like a “swamp” during the democratic reforms of the 1990s. Unlike other regions, there were no intense social conflicts or strikes. Nevertheless, Perm was always among the regions that supported the democratic movement. In the 1999 elections, the party that wanted to continue the reforms won a majority in the region. So the city got an unofficial status of “the capital of civil society” or even “the capital of Russian liberalism”.

F. During the Second World War many factories were moved to Perm Oblast and continued to work there after it ended. Chemicals, non-ferrous metallurgy, and oil refining were the key industries after the war. Other factories produced

aircraft engines, equipment for telephones, ships, bicycles, and cable. Perm press produces about 70 percent of Russia’s currency and stamped envelopes. Nowadays several major business companies are located in Perm. The biggest players of Russian aircraft industry are among them.

G. Perm has at least a dozen theatres featuring productions that are attracting audiences from faraway cities, and even from abroad. The broad esplanade running from the city’s main square has become the site of almost continuous

international art, theatre and music fairs during the summer. Even the former prison camp with grim walls outside town was converted into a theater last July for a production of “Fidelio”, Beethoven’s opera about political repression. The performance was well-reviewed.




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1. Information and technology

2. Never put off till tomorrow

3. Don't forget to rest

4. Set realistic targets

5. Find a place to your liking

6. Write down and revise

7. More important at college

8. Study plans per week


A. Today’s young generation will also need to master a new skill – digital literacy. Digital literacy can be defined as “the ability to find, evaluate, utilize, share, and create content using information technologies and the Internet”. Digital literacy, by this definition, encompasses a wide range of skills, all of which are necessary to succeed in an increasingly digital world. Students who lack digital literacy skills may soon find themselves at a disadvantage. As technology changes, students also need to keep updated.

B. The key to becoming an effective student is learning how to study smarter, not harder. This becomes more and more true as you advance in your education. An hour or two of studying a day is usually sufficient to make it through high school with satisfactory grades, but when college arrives, there aren’t enough hours in the day to squeeze all your studying in if you don’t know how to make your study efficient without skipping sleep or meals. The vast majority of successful college students achieve their success by developing and applying effective study habits.

C. Ever find yourself up late at night expending more energy trying to keep your eyelids open than you are studying? If so, it’s time for a change. Successful students typically space their work out over shorter periods of time and rarely try to cram all of their studying into just one or two sessions. If you want to become a successful student, then you need to learn to be consistent in your studies and to have regular, yet shorter, study sessions, with periods of rest in between. That will give your brain time to process the new information.

D. Successful students schedule specific times throughout the week when they are going to study – and then they stick with their schedule. Students who study sporadically and whimsically typically do not perform as well as students who have a set study schedule. Сreating a weekly routine, where you set aside a period of time a few days a week, to review your courses will ensure you develop habits that will enable you to succeed in your education long term. You won’t get stressed or overwhelmed by portioning your workload.

E. It is very easy, and common, to put off your study session because of lack of interest in the subject, because you have other things you need to get done, or just because the assignment is hard and needs effort and perseverance. Successful students do not procrastinate studying. If you procrastinate your study session, your studying will become less effective and you may not get everything accomplished that you need to. Procrastination also leads to rushing, and rushing is the number one cause of errors.

F. Always make sure to take good notes in class. Before you start each study session, and before you start a particular assignment, review your notes thoroughly to make sure you know how to complete the assignment correctly. Reviewing before each study session will help you remember important subject matter learned during the day, and make sure your studying is targeted and effective. Successful students also look through what they have written down at their lectures and seminars during the week over the weekend.

G. Everyone gets distracted by something: TV, or maybe family. Some people actually study better with a little background noise. When you’re distracted while studying you lose your train of thought and are unable to focus – both of which will lead to very ineffective studying. Before you start, find a place where you won’t be disturbed. For some people this is a quiet cubical in the recesses of the library. For others it is in a common area where there is little background noise. For some it may be a park or a garden – there are so many options to choose from!





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1. A good investment

2. How it all began

3. Multi-purpose constructions

4. All is well that ends well

5. A vertical marathon

6. Breathtaking athletic events

7. 21st century technology

8. Once number one globally


A. Radio and television towers are tall structures designed to transmit radio or television signals. However, besides serving their main function they often become tourist attractions, as a lot of them are true architectural wonders. Among some of the most famous — and tallest — towers in the world are the Tokyo Skytree, the Canton Tower in China, the CN Tower in Toronto, Canada, and the Ostankino Tower in Moscow, Russia.

B. The Ostankino Tower is 540 meters tall which makes it the tallest tower in Europe. When it was built in 1968, it was the tallest structure in the world, which it remained until 1975. The Ostankino Tower radio and television signal covers the area with the population of over 15 million people. The Tower also has an observation platform and a restaurant about 330 meters in the air which you can reach on one of the lifts in just 58 seconds.

C. The first Radio Tower in Moscow was built during the Civil War in 1922 by the outstanding Russian architect Vladimir Shukhov and is a hyperboloid structure. In fact, it was Shukhov who first invented the hyperboloid metal structure in the 1890s, inspired by the weaving of peasant baskets. Vladimir Lenin himself approved the construction of this tower which today is considered a historic and architectural monument of Soviet Constructivism.

D. Yet another use of television towers is holding sports events. Some of the most common ones are base-jumping, an extreme sport where participants jump off high structures with parachutes; and bungee jumping, where the jumpers are attached to a tall structure with a large elastic cord. Among the more traditional competitions is racing up the tower staircase, which was held in the Ostankino Tower up until 2000, when the tower was damaged by the fire.

E. The fire broke out at a height of 458 m on 27 August, 2000. It took over 300 firefighters, more than 24 hours and a lot of effort to stop it. Many people were afraid that the tower would not be able to survive and would collapse. Luckily it didn’t happen. But almost all TV channels and some radio channels stopped working for several days. The reconstruction of the tower that followed lasted until 2007. In 2009 the tower reopened its doors to tourists.

F. And not only to them. On July 21, 2018, Ostankino Tower was open again to 28 sportsmen from 12 countries who raced up its winding staircase. The staircase is very narrow, so the sportsmen had to run one by one with a 30 second interval between them. Only professional runners were allowed to participate. It was a German athlete Christian Riedl who made it to the top in just 9 minutes and 51 seconds, setting a new record.

G. It would be logical to assume that television towers are the tallest structures in the world. In fact, it had been true until 2009 when the Burj Khalifa, the tallest sky-scraper in the world, was built in Dubai. It cost about $1.5 billion to complete the construction of this building, but it paid off: office and apartment space pricing is over $40,000 per m2, and over 90% of all the apartments and offices are now occupied!




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1. Moscow is not for sale

2. The city of the future

3. True to life

4. The younger generation

5. A new home

6. One of many

7. A team effort

8. A hidden treasure


A. Hotel Ukraina is a remarkable building. It is located at the beginning of Kutuzovsky Avenue on the bank of the Moskva River. Built in 1957 and having a style of its own, it is worth seeing as an architectural sight. But if you go inside and walk all the way to the end of the lobby you will be rewarded with an even better sight, the existence of which is not widely known.

B. You will see there a diorama of the central part of Moscow as it looked back in 1977. This is a model of the center of Russia’s capital that was made by a large group of artists for the 1977 Soviet National Exhibition in the USA. This true work of art has a special illumination system, so Moscow can be seen during the daytime and at night when the sky turns dark and the windows of the buildings light up.

C. The model is 16 metres wide, 6 metres tall and 9.5 metres deep. On this model you can see the Kremlin and Red Square with tourist buses parked behind St Basil’s Cathedral, Rossiya Hotel, the Moskva River with river trams, the embankment with cars, New Arbat street, and even the high-rise of the Moscow State University and the Ostankino TV and radio Tower. The model is very detailed and accurate.

D. After its display in Deer Park in New York City in 1977, this unique model of Moscow travelled for several years all around the world and then back to Moscow. It won a gold medal at the Leipzig Fair and was called a masterpiece. The famous US astronaut Neil Armstrong, who was the first man to walk the surface of the Moon, wanted to buy this model of Moscow for Disneyland. But the artists refused to sell it.

E. After its return to Moscow, the model was kept at VDNH, and then was purchased by Hotel Ukraina. Since then it’s been admired by the guests of this hotel. You can look at the model from two different levels — the same level as the model itself, or an upper floor. The model is supplied with several pairs of headphones with an audio guide in English, Russian, French and German, explaining which part of Moscow you are looking at.

F. Even though so special and unique, this is not the only model of Moscow that exists in the city. A new architectural model of Moscow was built at VDNH in 2017. It is a lot bigger than the 1977 model and is more up to date. It occupies a special building and can be visited free of charge. The main difference is that even though equally accurate and even more detailed, the new model is just a model and not a piece of art.

G. Perhaps, the first model of a big city was created in 1940 in Los Angeles. Since then, there have been made many models of different cities around the world. One of the most impressive ones is the model of Jerusalem, Israel. It is a 1:50- scale model of how the city looked in the 1st century AD. It occupies 2,000 square meters and is located outdoors, in the Billy Rose Sculpture garden of the Israel Museum.





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1. A time for physical exercise

2. It is worth it!

3. Traditional winter drinks

4. Not as bad as you may think!

5. A unique cultural season

6. Just know the right people!

7. Too pretty to be real!

8. Where old and new times meet


A. If you mention travelling to Moscow in the winter, most foreign tourists will think you are crazy. Many of them will imagine snow, freezing temperatures and having to wear big parkas and fur hats. They are missing out, though, because winter in Moscow is like a fairy tale, and one of the most beautiful times of the year to visit. There is so much to see and do that the chance to visit this beautiful city during the winter should not be missed.

B. The shocking truth is that the Russian capital at wintertime is not as cold as many people would imagine. While the weather can be unpredictable, most of the time the temperature is around –5 degrees Celsius with a moderate amount of snow. Compared to Siberia, it is very mild. The biggest problems are that you can slip and fall on the ice, and salt on the sidewalks which can destroy your boots.

C. Many famous places of interest in Moscow become magical in the winter. Red Square is one of the first places to go to. With the snow falling gently, Saint Basil's Cathedral looks like a giant wedding cake covered in icing. Another place one should certainly visit is Novodevichy Convent with its lacelike towers and golden domes. When surrounded by snow, it resembles a fairy-tale castle of a beautiful princess.

D. Muscovites enjoy a wide variety of sports and activities in the wintertime. Cross-country skiing is a great way to both get fit and enjoy the winter beauty of the many public parks in Moscow. Another favorite pastime is ice skating. There is a giant skating rink every winter in Red Square and many smaller rinks throughout the city. There are many other winter sports that are popular such as snowboarding, sledding and ice fishing.

E. There are a lot of events in Moscow that can be experienced only in winter. The New Year holiday celebration is the most special time of the year and is like Christmas and New Year's Eve combined into one big party. The Russian Winter festival features performances of traditional Russian song and dance, games, crafts and ice sculptures. Finally, those feeling brave can dive into an ice hole for the Epiphany holiday.

F. If you get too cold while walking around, you can always go into a shop to warm up. There are many modern shopping malls throughout Moscow, but if you want to experience the retro charm and nostalgia of days past, there is no better place than GUM on Red Square or Eliseevsky food store on Tverskaya. In addition, there are many cafes located throughout the city if you need a hot drink or something to eat.


If you make Russian friends, you may get invited to their dacha and see the beautiful winter countryside outside Moscow. Here the snow will be deeper and the temperatures lower, but you won't be too cold as Russians have ways to stay warm. Best of all is the Russian Steam Bath. You can sit in the steam and when you find yourself hot and sweaty, you can do as the Russians do and jump in the snow outside to cool off.





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1. Building materials

2. The longest on Earth

3. Safe travel

4. Designing a building

5. Invented by accident

6. Comfortable living

7. How did they do it?

8. Why seasons change


A. Most of Africa’s rural peoples use natural resources that are locally available for their homes. In grasslands, people typically use grass to cover the walls and roofs. In forested areas, they use hardwoods as well as bamboo and raffia palm. Earth and clay are also major resources used in construction. In areas with few natural resources, people often live as nomads, moving from place to place. Instead of making permanent homes, they usually use simple shelters or tents made of animal skins and woven hair.

B. An architect must consider how a structure will be used and by whom. An apartment building, a palace, a hospital, a museum, an airport, and a sports arena all have different construction requirements. Another factor is the ideas the structure should communicate. For example, some buildings are made to impress people with a display of power and wealth; others — to make everyone feel welcome. Other things to consider are the location and surrounding environment, including weather, and the cost of materials.

C. Did you know that an eleven-year-old child first created the Popsicle? The boy’s name was Frank Epperson. In 1905, Frank left a mixture of water and powdered soda out on his porch by mistake. It also contained a stir stick. That night, fortunately for Frank, the temperatures fell to a record low. As a result, he discovered the substance had frozen to the stick, and a frozen fruit flavoured ice treat was created. He decided to call it the epsicle, which was later patented by him and named as Popsicle.

D. As Earth goes around the sun, the North Pole points to the same direction in space. For about six months every year, the North Pole is tilted towards the sun. During this time, the Northern Hemisphere gets more direct sunlight than the Southern Hemisphere and more hours of daylight. During the other six months, the North Pole is tilted away from the sun. When the Northern Hemisphere gets the most sunlight, it experiences spring and summer. At the same time, the Southern Hemisphere gets autumn and winter.

E. In southern Peru, there is an isolated plateau where the wind almost never blows. Here, around the year 400 to 650 AD, the people of the Nazca culture created the famous Nazca lines, by removing the red stones covering the ground so that the white earth beneath was visible. These Nazca lines are actually portraits of animals such as monkeys, birds or fish. It is a mystery how such a primitive civilization could create such artwork with precision when they had no means of viewing their work from the air.

F. Antarctica, which is the southernmost and fifth largest continent, does not have twenty-four-hour periods divided into days and nights. In the South Pole, the sun rises on about September 21 and moves in a circular path until it sets on about March 22. This “day”, or summer, is six months long. During this period, if the weather conditions are good, the sun can be seen twenty-four hours a day. From March 22 until September 21, the South Pole is dark, and Antarctica has its “night”, or winter.

G. Any ship that hits an iceberg can be damaged. The most famous iceberg in history sank the “Titanic”, a ship travelling in the northern Atlantic Ocean, on April 15, 1912. The ship’s side scraped the iceberg, which tore holes in the hull. Within three hours, the ship was at the bottom of the ocean. After the loss of the “Titanic”, several nations worked together to establish the International Ice Patrol. Today the U.S. Coast Guard runs the patrol, which warns ships about icebergs floating in Atlantic shipping routes.




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1. Changing the face of the planet

2. No effort, just luck!

3. Have the right neighbor!

4. The unexpected side of a failure

5. Good for war, good for peace

6. No sense of humour

7. Messy can be good!

8. True story and myth


A. Important discoveries and brilliant inventions often require years of hard work and sleepless nights. It is not unusual for scientists to devote their whole lives to solving a difficult problem. But sometimes discoveries are made by accident, as a by-product of another project people are working on, or even when somebody is doing something completely unrelated to anything remotely serious.

B. One of the most well-known discoveries that was made like that is the discovery of America by Christopher Columbus. While trying to find the shortest way to India, Christopher Columbus stumbled upon a new continent. His discovery completely changed people’s understanding of the world as well as the cuisine of his native country! Today it is hard to even imagine what Italians ate when they didn’t have tomatoes.

C. Another iconic discovery made by accident is Isaac Newton’s Law of Gravity. It happened when he was having tea in his garden and watched an apple fall off a tree. He had already been in a philosophical mood, and the falling of a bright object triggered the thought that had already been forming in his mind. This was how the incident was recorded by his biographers, but later a more dramatic story of him sleeping under the tree and being hit on the head by an apple was invented.

D. Discoveries can be made thanks to bad habits. Alexander Fleming was known for being an untidy person as much as a talented scientist. His lab was never in perfect order, and things easily got lost. Once he forgot about some cups with bacteria and went on vacation. When he returned and found them, he noticed that mold had grown in one of the cups and killed the bacteria. This mold known to us now as penicillin keeps saving many lives.

E. Some of the discoveries were made during WWII. Percy Spencer was an American physicist working in the early 1940s on military radar equipment that used microwave radio signals. Once he was standing in front of the working radar and noticed that a chocolate bar in his pocket had melted. At the time, he continued working on the radars, but after the war he created a microwave oven based on this discovery.

F. Harry Coover was another American scientist working during WWII. He was trying to create transparent plastic for clear plastic gun sights used for aiming. The formula he invented produced plastic that was so sticky that it stuck to everything it touched. Coover was sad that his formula was a complete disaster, but several years later realized that it could be used as glue. This was how superglue was invented.

G. In the summer of 1904, the World Fair in St. Louis, Missouri, was in full swing, when Arnold Fornachou, an ice-cream vendor, ran out of paper cups. Not to lose any business, Formachou bought some waffles from the waffle vendor whose booth was standing next to his, and rolled them into cones. The improvised cups were a great success and later became known as ice-cream cones!






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1. Different terms

2. The importance of sleep

3. Lack of sleep

4. Reasons to be active

5. What is obesity

6. Sleep and obesity

7. Emotions and sleep

8. How long to sleep


A. When a person has excess weight or body fat, this might affect their health. It is usually caused by the consumption of more calories than the body can use. The excess calories are stored as fat. Obesity is a medical condition. It was first recognized as a disease in 1948 by the World Health Organisation (WHO). Obese people suffer from a large number of diseases. In most people, obesity is caused by eating too much and moving too little. There are different types of obesity.

B. It’s never too late to become more physically active. Physical activity refers to any movement of the body that uses energy. It can include housework, walking and gardening. Exercise is a kind of physical activity. It is planned and

repetitive. Examples of exercise are going to the gym and running on a treadmill. If you are interested in maintaining good health, physical activity can be a great place to start. If you want to achieve fitness goals, you will need to incorporate structured exercise into your routine.

C. Exercising regularly is one of the most important things you can do for your health. In the short term, exercise helps to control appetite, boost mood and improve sleep. In the long term, it reduces the risk of heart disease, stroke, diabetes, dementia and depression. Exercise plays a vital role in building and maintaining strong muscles and bones. Regular exercise also increases your chances of living longer. There are many types of physical activity, including swimming, running, jogging, walking and dancing.

D. Sleep plays an essential role in your health and well-being. Getting enough good quality sleep has many benefits. It protects your physical and mental health, quality of life and personal safety. When we sleep, our brain lays down

memory, restores daytime mental functioning and carries out processes that lead to physical growth. Poor sleep is strongly linked to weight gain. People with short sleep duration tend to weigh significantly more than those who get adequate sleep. Mental health issues are strongly linked to poor sleep quality.

E. Sleep is a vital indicator of overall health and well-being. On average, adults should optimally receive between seven and nine hours of sleep each night, but those needs vary individually. For example, some people feel best with eight consecutive hours of sleep, while others do well with six to seven hours at night and daytime napping. Some people feel okay when their sleep schedule changes, while others feel strongly affected by a new schedule or even one night of insufficient sleep.

F. Obesity develops when energy intake is greater than expenditure. Diet and physical activity play an important part in this. However, an additional factor may be inadequate sleep. A growing body of research suggests that there’s a link between how much people sleep and how much they weigh. In general, children and adults who get too little sleep tend to weigh more than those who get enough sleep. People who don’t get enough sleep may take in more calories than those who do, simply because they are awake longer and have more opportunities to eat.

G. People find it harder to fall asleep when they are anxious and sad. The relationship between mood disorders and quality sleep is a complex, two-way street. Just as negative mood states can make getting a good night’s sleep a virtual impossibility, insufficient sleep can lead to depression. Regardless of which comes first, the end result is that a blue mood and poor sleep go hand-inhand. The amount and quality of our sleep can play a huge role in our mental health including how we feel and how we act toward other people.





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1. The history of taming

2. Comparing the two species

3. A beautiful place to be saved

4. Reasons to domesticate cows

5. The evolution of bison

6. Born to be wild

7. Safer than before, but not enough

8. Failed attempts to protect


A.It is likely that the modern European bison arose from the steppe bison. Recent research says it appeared as a result of an interbreeding event between the steppe bison and the ancestor of modern cows around 120,000 years ago. At

one point, some steppe bison crossbred with the ancestors of the modern yak. After that, a population of steppe bison crossed the Bering Land Bridge to North America. Then the steppe bison spread through the northern parts of North America, where it lived until around 8,000 years ago..

B. The Prioksko-Terrasny Nature Reserve is one of the smallest in Russia. It covers an area of 4,960 hectares on the terraces of the Oka River valley. This is a unique area with its natural diversity of pine and mixed forests, small rivers, streams and marshes. Here you can observe the life of animals and birds in their natural habitat. The symbol of the reserve is a bison. This is a wild forest bull, which was recently on the verge of extinction. Bison youngsters grown up to two years in the reserve are sent to replenish free-living populations.

C. Though the American and European bisons are close relatives, it is easy to spot clear differences in their behaviour and build. Adult European bisons are slimmer in build and have longer legs. European bisons tend to graze less and walk around more than their American relatives. This difference in behaviour is reflected in their build. The American bison’s head hangs lower than the European’s does. American bisons are more easily tamed than their European cousins are. They also breed with domestic cattle more readily.

D. American bisons are known for living on the Great Plains. Bisons were hunted close to extinction during the 19th and 20th centuries, but have since rebounded. The European bison owes its survival, in part, to the Chernobyl disaster. Ironically, the Chernobyl Zone has become a kind of wildlife preserve, though poaching has become a threat in recent years. The American Plains bison is no longer listed as endangered, but this does not mean the species is safe. Their fragmented herds call for active conservation measures.

E. In the middle of the 19th century people started realising how important the buffalo was. Reasons for that included not only animal cruelty, but also ecological and future resources. Someone needed to speak out, and over the years they did, but never enough at one time to count. The real extermination of the buffalo was caused by the demands of trade, aided by hunters and Indians. However, the blame really lies with the government, which in all those years permitted a few ignorant Congressmen to block the laws protecting these animals.

F. There have been several attempts to tame the buffalo, but there are a few things that stand in the way. The buffalo is very aggressive by nature; it can run up to 40 mph and can jump vertically in the air almost their entire height. Imagine trying to teach an angry, prancing sedan to stay still and respect you. All that said, there have been instances of domestic buffalo. This is possible if they are raised from calves to be only with humans. Even then, they seem to be loyal and friendly with a small set of humans, not all humans.

G. At about the same time they domesticated plants, people in Mesopotamia began to domesticate animals for meat, milk, and hides. Hides were used for clothing, storing things and for building tent shelters. Goats were probably the first animals to be domesticated, followed closely by sheep. Later, people began domesticating larger animals, such as oxen or horses, for ploughing and transportation. These are known as beasts of burden. The easiest animals to domesticate are herbivores that graze on grass, because they are the easiest to feed.





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1. One kind of energy into another!

2. Enough is enough!

3. Always something to celebrate!

4. Home again!

5. Always right on trend!

6. No need to study abroad!

7. Spring is in the air!

8. Not to forget the history!


A.In the 19th and 20th century, just like any other big industrial city, Moscow had many plants and factories. They provided Muscovites with jobs and industrial goods such as fabrics, clothes and cars. They also made their owners rich and famous. However, from the late 20th century until now the number of plants and factories in Moscow has been subsiding, and here again, Moscow follows the general tendency that you can see all over the world.

B. Besides jobs and industrial goods, plants and factories bring pollution. Add the exhaust fumes from cars and you will get a city covered in smog. This has always been a problem, but by the mid 20th century it reached the point when it became obvious that something had to be done. Big companies started closing their manufacturing facilities in cities and moving them elsewhere. But their buildings remained, and many of them got second lives.

C. Two of the most spectacular examples of this trend are the two former power stations in London: Bankside Power Station which was closed in 1981 and converted into Tate Modern Gallery in 1994; and Battersea Power Station which was closed in 1975 and is now in the process of being transformed into a modern facility which will house a unique blend of restaurants, shops, parks, cultural and office spaces, as well as residential accommodation.

D. Moscow has several similar projects. One of the first was transforming a silk factory once owned by a French merchant Claude-Marie Girot into a modern business block. The sturdy red-brick four-storied buildings, so typical of the late-19th century factories, now house different businesses, among which is Yandex headquarters. The business block is called Red Rose 1875, commemorating the year the silk factory was opened and the fact that during the Soviet times it was named after Rosa Luxemburg.

E. Bolshevik Sweets Factory is famous primarily for it Yubileynoe cookies which were first produced in 1913 to celebrate the Romanov family 300th Anniversary on the Russian throne. Today, besides many other things, its historic building in Moscow is home to the Russian Impressionism Museum whose owner collects paintings of late 19th — early 20th century Russian artists. Many of the pictures were bought abroad and brought back to Russia.

F. Manometer Plant opened in 1886 as a foundry and during the Soviet times produced a lot of machinery for different industries. When its facilities were moved out of Moscow, the old buildings were turned into a center of art, architecture and design called Artplay. Several art galleries and architectural workshops, can be found here, as well as The British Higher School of Art and Design which has become quite popular with Russian art students.

G. One of the most popular creative spaces located in the old industrial sites is the former perfume factory well-known now as Flacon. This is the place enjoyed by Muscovites and tourists alike. In addition to cool cafes and restaurants, workshops and concerts, Flacon regularly holds all sorts of festivals — Days of a particular country like Norway or France, Singapore or Japan, as well as festivals of creative industries and handmade crafts.