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Вариант № 983647

1.

Вы услышите 6 высказываний. Установите соответствие между высказываниями каждого говорящего A–F и утверждениями, данными в списке 1–7. Используйте каждое утверждение, обозначенное соответствующей цифрой, только один раз. В задании есть одно лишнее утверждение. Вы услышите запись дважды.

 

 

1. Reading a lot is an important aspect of self-education.

2. Self-education doesn’t have to be boring.

3. Self-education is necessary even after you get a diploma.

4. The World Wide Web has made self-education really easy.

5. Self-education isn’t necessary with teachers at hand.

6. Self-education is not a good option for everyone.

7. Responsibility is the key to effective self-education.

 

ГоворящийABCDEF
Утверждение

2.

Вы услышите диалог. Определите, какие из приведённых утверждений А–G соответствуют содержанию текста (1 – True), какие не соответствуют (2 – False) и о чём в тексте не сказано, то есть на основании текста нельзя дать ни положительного, ни отрицательного ответа (3 – Not stated). Занесите номер выбранного Вами варианта ответа в таблицу. Вы услышите запись дважды.

 

 

A) Jeff hired a designer to decorate his room in Japanese style.

B) Jeff and Mark made friends not long ago.

C) Mark doesn’t give any money to run the home.

D) Mark is quite an obstinate and untidy person.

E) Jeff hopes to change Mark’s lifestyle.

F) Being a night owl Mark works the night shifts on TV.

G) Jeff wants his friend to start playing football.

 

Запишите в ответ цифры, расположив их в порядке, соответствующем буквам:

ABCDEFG
       

3.

Вы услы­ши­те ин­тер­вью два­жды. Вы­бе­ри­те пра­виль­ный ответ 1, 2 или 3.

 

 

What do we learn about Maggie’s musical education?

 

1) She didn’t have a special music talent.

2) She attended a musical school for 9 years.

3) She didn’t like playing the piano very much.

4.

Вы услы­ши­те ин­тер­вью два­жды. Вы­бе­ри­те пра­виль­ный ответ 1, 2 или 3.

 

 

Why did Maggie want to become an actress?

 

1) This profession runs in her family.

2) She wanted to overcome the stage fright.

3) Acting on stage felt natural to her.

5.

Вы услы­ши­те ин­тер­вью два­жды. Вы­бе­ри­те пра­виль­ный ответ 1, 2 или 3.

 

 

What does Maggie say about directors and directing?

 

1) She thinks David Lynch is the best director.

2) She feels she could herself direct a film one day.

3) She thinks she was fortunate to work with many talented directors.

6.

Вы услы­ши­те ин­тер­вью два­жды. Вы­бе­ри­те пра­виль­ный ответ 1, 2 или 3.

 

 

What does Maggie say is the most important thing for her about a film?

 

1) The story.

2) The screenplay.

3) The partners.

7.

Вы услы­ши­те ин­тер­вью два­жды. Вы­бе­ри­те пра­виль­ный ответ 1, 2 или 3.

 

 

Maggie often plays mothers because …

 

1) such roles provide lots of opportunities to an actress.

2) people like her in such roles.

3) she is a future mother herself.

8.

Вы услы­ши­те ин­тер­вью два­жды. Вы­бе­ри­те пра­виль­ный ответ 1, 2 или 3.

 

 

What does Maggie think of her appearance?

 

1) She thinks she should take care of the way she looks on screen.

2) She thinks her looks don’t interfere with her job.

3) She thinks she’s very beautiful.

9.

Вы услы­ши­те ин­тер­вью два­жды. Вы­бе­ри­те пра­виль­ный ответ 1, 2 или 3.

 

 

What does Maggie love about being an actress?

 

1) Being able to play both men and women.

2) Being able to express complex characters.

3) Being able to look beautiful on screen.

10.

Установите соответствие между заголовками 1–8 и текстами A–G. Запишите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. A long way to popularity

2. Revolutionary materials

3. Borrowed ideas

4. A stairway to heaven

5. Brilliant ideas and brave deeds

6. It had its finest hour

7. Extraordinary combinations

8. Ideas on sale

 

A. Born in 1743, Thomas Jefferson helped shape the new American nation and also shaped some of the country's most famous buildings. The twentieth century architects who designed the circular Jefferson Memorial in Washington D.C. drew inspiration from Thomas Jefferson's architectural ideas. And from where did Jefferson get his ideas? The Pantheon in Rome! This building with its classical portico became a model that influenced Western architecture for 2,000 years.

 

B. Postmodern architecture evolved from the modernist movement, yet contradicts many of the modernist ideas. Combining new ideas with traditional forms, postmodernist buildings may startle, surprise, and even amuse. Familiar shapes and details are used in unexpected ways. Philip Johnson's AT&T Headquarters is often cited as an example of postmodernism. Like many buildings in the international style, this skyscraper has a classical facade.

 

C. The Industrial Revolution in Europe brought about a new trend: the use of metals instead of wood and stone in construction. Built in 1889, the Eiffel Tower is perhaps the most famous example of this new use for metal. For 40 years, the Eiffel Tower measured the tallest in the world. The metal latticework, formed with very pure structural iron, makes the tower both extremely light and able to withstand tremendous wind forces.

 

D. By the early 1800s, Belfast had become a major port at the beating heart of the region's industry. The launching of the Titanic from the ship ways was attended by an estimated 100,000 people, showing how important this event was for Belfast. Many more impressive ships would leave the yard in the coming years before the decline of the shipbuilding industry began in the 1950s, but the Titanic marked the zenith of the great shipbuilding era in Belfast.

 

E. Thomas Andrews was the chief naval architect at the Harland and Wolff shipyard in Belfast during the early 1900s. He brought the idea of 'Olympic class' ocean liners to life. The most famous of these was Titanic, which he joined on its first voyage. His actions when the ship sank on 15 April 1912 are believed to have saved many lives, but at the cost of his own. In his home town of Comber, the life of Thomas Andrews is commemorated by the Memorial Hall, opened in 1915.

 

F. An e-book or "electronic book" is available digitally downloaded, and accessed through a device such as a computer, a smart phone or, popularly, a portable e-book reader. In 1971, Michael Hart began storing vast contents of libraries in electronic formats. Hart named his efforts Project Gutenberg, after the inventor of the printing press. Libraries were early adopters of the technology. But it took nearly thirty years for the idea of the e-book to take firm hold with the consumer.

 

G. The Frankfurt Book Fair is held in October of each year. It usually hosts more than 7,300 exhibitors from 100 countries ranging from Albania to Zimbabwe. For the American book publishing industry, the Frankfurt Book Fair is predominantly a trade fair, that is, a professional meeting place for publishers, editors, librarians, book subsidiary rights managers, booksellers, film producers, authors and many others who are involved in the creation and licensing of book content.

 

ТекстABCDEFG
Заголовок

11.

Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A–F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1–7. Одна из частей в списке 1–7 — лишняя. Занесите цифры, обозначающие соответствующие части предложений, в таблицу.

 

 

Changing image

 

For more than 200 years Madame Tussaud's has been attracting tourists from all over the world and it remains just as popular as it ever was. There are many reasons for this enduring success, but at the heart of it all is good, old-fashioned curiosity.

Madame Tussaud's original concept has entered a brand new era of interactive entertainment A _________________. Today's visitors are sent on a breathtaking journey in black cabs through hundreds of years of the past. They have a unique chance to see the great legends of history, В _________________ of politics.

Much of the figure construction technique follows the traditional pattern, beginning whenever possible with the subject С _________________ and personal characteristics. The surprising likeliness of the wax portraits also owes much to many stars D _________________, either by providing their stage clothes, or simply giving useful advice.

The museum continues constantly to add figures E _________________ popularity. The attraction also continues to expand globally with established international branches in New York, Hong Kong, Amsterdam and many other cities. And they all have the same rich mix of interaction, authenticity and local appeal.

The museum provides a stimulating and educational environment for schoolchildren. Its specialists are working together with practicing teachers and educational advisors to create different programmes of activities, F _________________.

 

1. as well as resources on art, technology and drama

2. as well as the idols of popular music and the icons

3. who is sitting to determine exact measurements

4. ranging from special effects to fully animated figures

5. ranging from all kinds of souvenirs to sports equipment

6. that reflect contemporary public opinion and celebrity

7. who are eager to help in any possible way they can

 

ПропускABCDEF
Часть предложения

12.

At the beginning of the article the author reminds that the new media technologies …

 

1) turn our attention off morals.

2) used to frighten the majority of people.

3) improve human brainpower.

4) could make people less intelligent.


Mind over mass media

New forms of media have always caused moral panic: the printing press, newspapers, and television were all once denounced as threats to their consumers’ brainpower and moral fiber. So too with electronic technologies. PowerPoint, we’re told, is reducing discourse to bullet points. Search engines lower our intelligence, encouraging us to skim on the surface of knowledge rather than dive to its depths. Twitter is shrinking our attention spans.

But such panic often fails basic reality checks. When comic books were accused of turning juveniles into criminals in the 1950s, crime was falling to record lows. The decades of television, transistor radios and rock videos were also decades in which I.Q. scores rose continuously.

For a reality check today, take the state of science, which demands high levels of brainwork. These days scientists are never far from their e-mail, rarely touch paper and cannot lecture without PowerPoint. If electronic media were hazardous to intelligence, the quality of science would be plummeting. Yet discoveries are multiplying like fruit flies, and progress is dizzying.

Critics of new media sometimes use science itself to press their case, citing research that shows how “experience can change the brain”. But cognitive neuroscientists roll their eyes at such talk. Experience does not remake the basic information-processing capacities of the brain. Speed-reading programs have long claimed to do just that, but the verdict was rendered by Woody Allen after he read “War and Peace” in one sitting: “It was about Russia.”

Moreover, the effects of experience are highly specific to the experiences themselves. If you train people to do one thing, they get better at doing that thing, but almost nothing else. Music doesn’t make you better at math. Accomplished people immerse themselves in their fields. Novelists read lots of novels, scientists read lots of science.

The effects of consuming electronic media are also likely to be far more limited than the panic implies. Media critics write as if the brain takes on the qualities of whatever it consumes, the informational equivalent of “you are what you eat”. As with primitive peoples who believe that eating fierce animals will make them fierce, they assume that reading Twitter postings turns your thoughts into Twitter postings.

Yes, the continual arrival of information packets can be distracting or addictive. But distraction is not a new phenomenon. The solution is to develop strategies of self-control. Turn off Twitter when you work and put away your smartphone at dinner time.

And to encourage intellectual depth, don’t rail at PowerPoint or Google. It’s not as if habits of deep reflection or thorough research ever came naturally to people. They must be acquired in universities, and maintained with constant analysis, criticism and debate. They are not granted by propping a heavy encyclopedia on your lap, nor are they taken away by efficient access to information on the Internet.

The new media have caught on for a reason. Knowledge is increasing exponentially; human brainpower and waking hours are not. Fortunately, the Internet and information technologies are helping us manage and search our collective intellectual output at different scales, from Twitter to e-books and online encyclopedias. Far from making us stupid, these technologies are the only things that will keep us smart.

13.

What has life proved about electronic technologies according to the author?

 

1) Scientists can’t do without them.

2) They could increase the crime level.

3) They don’t disrupt brainwork.

4) Television influences intelligence.


Mind over mass media

New forms of media have always caused moral panic: the printing press, newspapers, and television were all once denounced as threats to their consumers’ brainpower and moral fiber. So too with electronic technologies. PowerPoint, we’re told, is reducing discourse to bullet points. Search engines lower our intelligence, encouraging us to skim on the surface of knowledge rather than dive to its depths. Twitter is shrinking our attention spans.

But such panic often fails basic reality checks. When comic books were accused of turning juveniles into criminals in the 1950s, crime was falling to record lows. The decades of television, transistor radios and rock videos were also decades in which I.Q. scores rose continuously.

For a reality check today, take the state of science, which demands high levels of brainwork. These days scientists are never far from their e-mail, rarely touch paper and cannot lecture without PowerPoint. If electronic media were hazardous to intelligence, the quality of science would be plummeting. Yet discoveries are multiplying like fruit flies, and progress is dizzying.

Critics of new media sometimes use science itself to press their case, citing research that shows how “experience can change the brain”. But cognitive neuroscientists roll their eyes at such talk. Experience does not remake the basic information-processing capacities of the brain. Speed-reading programs have long claimed to do just that, but the verdict was rendered by Woody Allen after he read “War and Peace” in one sitting: “It was about Russia.”

Moreover, the effects of experience are highly specific to the experiences themselves. If you train people to do one thing, they get better at doing that thing, but almost nothing else. Music doesn’t make you better at math. Accomplished people immerse themselves in their fields. Novelists read lots of novels, scientists read lots of science.

The effects of consuming electronic media are also likely to be far more limited than the panic implies. Media critics write as if the brain takes on the qualities of whatever it consumes, the informational equivalent of “you are what you eat”. As with primitive peoples who believe that eating fierce animals will make them fierce, they assume that reading Twitter postings turns your thoughts into Twitter postings.

Yes, the continual arrival of information packets can be distracting or addictive. But distraction is not a new phenomenon. The solution is to develop strategies of self-control. Turn off Twitter when you work and put away your smartphone at dinner time.

And to encourage intellectual depth, don’t rail at PowerPoint or Google. It’s not as if habits of deep reflection or thorough research ever came naturally to people. They must be acquired in universities, and maintained with constant analysis, criticism and debate. They are not granted by propping a heavy encyclopedia on your lap, nor are they taken away by efficient access to information on the Internet.

The new media have caught on for a reason. Knowledge is increasing exponentially; human brainpower and waking hours are not. Fortunately, the Internet and information technologies are helping us manage and search our collective intellectual output at different scales, from Twitter to e-books and online encyclopedias. Far from making us stupid, these technologies are the only things that will keep us smart.

14.

According to the author, the arguments of the critics of new media make neuroscientists feel …

 

1) annoyed.

2) amused.

3) surprised.

4) confused.


Mind over mass media

New forms of media have always caused moral panic: the printing press, newspapers, and television were all once denounced as threats to their consumers’ brainpower and moral fiber. So too with electronic technologies. PowerPoint, we’re told, is reducing discourse to bullet points. Search engines lower our intelligence, encouraging us to skim on the surface of knowledge rather than dive to its depths. Twitter is shrinking our attention spans.

But such panic often fails basic reality checks. When comic books were accused of turning juveniles into criminals in the 1950s, crime was falling to record lows. The decades of television, transistor radios and rock videos were also decades in which I.Q. scores rose continuously.

For a reality check today, take the state of science, which demands high levels of brainwork. These days scientists are never far from their e-mail, rarely touch paper and cannot lecture without PowerPoint. If electronic media were hazardous to intelligence, the quality of science would be plummeting. Yet discoveries are multiplying like fruit flies, and progress is dizzying.

Critics of new media sometimes use science itself to press their case, citing research that shows how “experience can change the brain”. But cognitive neuroscientists roll their eyes at such talk. Experience does not remake the basic information-processing capacities of the brain. Speed-reading programs have long claimed to do just that, but the verdict was rendered by Woody Allen after he read “War and Peace” in one sitting: “It was about Russia.”

Moreover, the effects of experience are highly specific to the experiences themselves. If you train people to do one thing, they get better at doing that thing, but almost nothing else. Music doesn’t make you better at math. Accomplished people immerse themselves in their fields. Novelists read lots of novels, scientists read lots of science.

The effects of consuming electronic media are also likely to be far more limited than the panic implies. Media critics write as if the brain takes on the qualities of whatever it consumes, the informational equivalent of “you are what you eat”. As with primitive peoples who believe that eating fierce animals will make them fierce, they assume that reading Twitter postings turns your thoughts into Twitter postings.

Yes, the continual arrival of information packets can be distracting or addictive. But distraction is not a new phenomenon. The solution is to develop strategies of self-control. Turn off Twitter when you work and put away your smartphone at dinner time.

And to encourage intellectual depth, don’t rail at PowerPoint or Google. It’s not as if habits of deep reflection or thorough research ever came naturally to people. They must be acquired in universities, and maintained with constant analysis, criticism and debate. They are not granted by propping a heavy encyclopedia on your lap, nor are they taken away by efficient access to information on the Internet.

The new media have caught on for a reason. Knowledge is increasing exponentially; human brainpower and waking hours are not. Fortunately, the Internet and information technologies are helping us manage and search our collective intellectual output at different scales, from Twitter to e-books and online encyclopedias. Far from making us stupid, these technologies are the only things that will keep us smart.

15.

What does the example of Woody Allen’s reading of “War and Peace” illustrate?

 

1) Scientific research of brain supports critics of new media.

2) Technology hardly influences the way brain deals with information.

3) Experience with technology is significant for intellectual abilities.

4) Speed-reading programs improve information-processing.


Mind over mass media

New forms of media have always caused moral panic: the printing press, newspapers, and television were all once denounced as threats to their consumers’ brainpower and moral fiber. So too with electronic technologies. PowerPoint, we’re told, is reducing discourse to bullet points. Search engines lower our intelligence, encouraging us to skim on the surface of knowledge rather than dive to its depths. Twitter is shrinking our attention spans.

But such panic often fails basic reality checks. When comic books were accused of turning juveniles into criminals in the 1950s, crime was falling to record lows. The decades of television, transistor radios and rock videos were also decades in which I.Q. scores rose continuously.

For a reality check today, take the state of science, which demands high levels of brainwork. These days scientists are never far from their e-mail, rarely touch paper and cannot lecture without PowerPoint. If electronic media were hazardous to intelligence, the quality of science would be plummeting. Yet discoveries are multiplying like fruit flies, and progress is dizzying.

Critics of new media sometimes use science itself to press their case, citing research that shows how “experience can change the brain”. But cognitive neuroscientists roll their eyes at such talk. Experience does not remake the basic information-processing capacities of the brain. Speed-reading programs have long claimed to do just that, but the verdict was rendered by Woody Allen after he read “War and Peace” in one sitting: “It was about Russia.”

Moreover, the effects of experience are highly specific to the experiences themselves. If you train people to do one thing, they get better at doing that thing, but almost nothing else. Music doesn’t make you better at math. Accomplished people immerse themselves in their fields. Novelists read lots of novels, scientists read lots of science.

The effects of consuming electronic media are also likely to be far more limited than the panic implies. Media critics write as if the brain takes on the qualities of whatever it consumes, the informational equivalent of “you are what you eat”. As with primitive peoples who believe that eating fierce animals will make them fierce, they assume that reading Twitter postings turns your thoughts into Twitter postings.

Yes, the continual arrival of information packets can be distracting or addictive. But distraction is not a new phenomenon. The solution is to develop strategies of self-control. Turn off Twitter when you work and put away your smartphone at dinner time.

And to encourage intellectual depth, don’t rail at PowerPoint or Google. It’s not as if habits of deep reflection or thorough research ever came naturally to people. They must be acquired in universities, and maintained with constant analysis, criticism and debate. They are not granted by propping a heavy encyclopedia on your lap, nor are they taken away by efficient access to information on the Internet.

The new media have caught on for a reason. Knowledge is increasing exponentially; human brainpower and waking hours are not. Fortunately, the Internet and information technologies are helping us manage and search our collective intellectual output at different scales, from Twitter to e-books and online encyclopedias. Far from making us stupid, these technologies are the only things that will keep us smart.

16.

The phrasal verb “takes on” in “Media critics write as if the brain takes on the qualities …” (paragraph 6) is closest in meaning to …

 

1) adapts.

2) changes.

3) acquires.

4) rejects.


Mind over mass media

New forms of media have always caused moral panic: the printing press, newspapers, and television were all once denounced as threats to their consumers’ brainpower and moral fiber. So too with electronic technologies. PowerPoint, we’re told, is reducing discourse to bullet points. Search engines lower our intelligence, encouraging us to skim on the surface of knowledge rather than dive to its depths. Twitter is shrinking our attention spans.

But such panic often fails basic reality checks. When comic books were accused of turning juveniles into criminals in the 1950s, crime was falling to record lows. The decades of television, transistor radios and rock videos were also decades in which I.Q. scores rose continuously.

For a reality check today, take the state of science, which demands high levels of brainwork. These days scientists are never far from their e-mail, rarely touch paper and cannot lecture without PowerPoint. If electronic media were hazardous to intelligence, the quality of science would be plummeting. Yet discoveries are multiplying like fruit flies, and progress is dizzying.

Critics of new media sometimes use science itself to press their case, citing research that shows how “experience can change the brain”. But cognitive neuroscientists roll their eyes at such talk. Experience does not remake the basic information-processing capacities of the brain. Speed-reading programs have long claimed to do just that, but the verdict was rendered by Woody Allen after he read “War and Peace” in one sitting: “It was about Russia.”

Moreover, the effects of experience are highly specific to the experiences themselves. If you train people to do one thing, they get better at doing that thing, but almost nothing else. Music doesn’t make you better at math. Accomplished people immerse themselves in their fields. Novelists read lots of novels, scientists read lots of science.

The effects of consuming electronic media are also likely to be far more limited than the panic implies. Media critics write as if the brain takes on the qualities of whatever it consumes, the informational equivalent of “you are what you eat”. As with primitive peoples who believe that eating fierce animals will make them fierce, they assume that reading Twitter postings turns your thoughts into Twitter postings.

Yes, the continual arrival of information packets can be distracting or addictive. But distraction is not a new phenomenon. The solution is to develop strategies of self-control. Turn off Twitter when you work and put away your smartphone at dinner time.

And to encourage intellectual depth, don’t rail at PowerPoint or Google. It’s not as if habits of deep reflection or thorough research ever came naturally to people. They must be acquired in universities, and maintained with constant analysis, criticism and debate. They are not granted by propping a heavy encyclopedia on your lap, nor are they taken away by efficient access to information on the Internet.

The new media have caught on for a reason. Knowledge is increasing exponentially; human brainpower and waking hours are not. Fortunately, the Internet and information technologies are helping us manage and search our collective intellectual output at different scales, from Twitter to e-books and online encyclopedias. Far from making us stupid, these technologies are the only things that will keep us smart.

17.

Which negative effect of information flood does the author recognise?

 

1) Inefficient access to data.

2) Lack of self-control.

3) Continuous distraction.

4) Shallow mindedness.


Mind over mass media

New forms of media have always caused moral panic: the printing press, newspapers, and television were all once denounced as threats to their consumers’ brainpower and moral fiber. So too with electronic technologies. PowerPoint, we’re told, is reducing discourse to bullet points. Search engines lower our intelligence, encouraging us to skim on the surface of knowledge rather than dive to its depths. Twitter is shrinking our attention spans.

But such panic often fails basic reality checks. When comic books were accused of turning juveniles into criminals in the 1950s, crime was falling to record lows. The decades of television, transistor radios and rock videos were also decades in which I.Q. scores rose continuously.

For a reality check today, take the state of science, which demands high levels of brainwork. These days scientists are never far from their e-mail, rarely touch paper and cannot lecture without PowerPoint. If electronic media were hazardous to intelligence, the quality of science would be plummeting. Yet discoveries are multiplying like fruit flies, and progress is dizzying.

Critics of new media sometimes use science itself to press their case, citing research that shows how “experience can change the brain”. But cognitive neuroscientists roll their eyes at such talk. Experience does not remake the basic information-processing capacities of the brain. Speed-reading programs have long claimed to do just that, but the verdict was rendered by Woody Allen after he read “War and Peace” in one sitting: “It was about Russia.”

Moreover, the effects of experience are highly specific to the experiences themselves. If you train people to do one thing, they get better at doing that thing, but almost nothing else. Music doesn’t make you better at math. Accomplished people immerse themselves in their fields. Novelists read lots of novels, scientists read lots of science.

The effects of consuming electronic media are also likely to be far more limited than the panic implies. Media critics write as if the brain takes on the qualities of whatever it consumes, the informational equivalent of “you are what you eat”. As with primitive peoples who believe that eating fierce animals will make them fierce, they assume that reading Twitter postings turns your thoughts into Twitter postings.

Yes, the continual arrival of information packets can be distracting or addictive. But distraction is not a new phenomenon. The solution is to develop strategies of self-control. Turn off Twitter when you work and put away your smartphone at dinner time.

And to encourage intellectual depth, don’t rail at PowerPoint or Google. It’s not as if habits of deep reflection or thorough research ever came naturally to people. They must be acquired in universities, and maintained with constant analysis, criticism and debate. They are not granted by propping a heavy encyclopedia on your lap, nor are they taken away by efficient access to information on the Internet.

The new media have caught on for a reason. Knowledge is increasing exponentially; human brainpower and waking hours are not. Fortunately, the Internet and information technologies are helping us manage and search our collective intellectual output at different scales, from Twitter to e-books and online encyclopedias. Far from making us stupid, these technologies are the only things that will keep us smart.

18.

What idea is expressed in the last paragraph?

 

1) New media help us keep up with life.

2) Human knowledge is developing too fast.

3) New media are the result of collective brainwork.

4) There are different ways to manage knowledge.


Mind over mass media

New forms of media have always caused moral panic: the printing press, newspapers, and television were all once denounced as threats to their consumers’ brainpower and moral fiber. So too with electronic technologies. PowerPoint, we’re told, is reducing discourse to bullet points. Search engines lower our intelligence, encouraging us to skim on the surface of knowledge rather than dive to its depths. Twitter is shrinking our attention spans.

But such panic often fails basic reality checks. When comic books were accused of turning juveniles into criminals in the 1950s, crime was falling to record lows. The decades of television, transistor radios and rock videos were also decades in which I.Q. scores rose continuously.

For a reality check today, take the state of science, which demands high levels of brainwork. These days scientists are never far from their e-mail, rarely touch paper and cannot lecture without PowerPoint. If electronic media were hazardous to intelligence, the quality of science would be plummeting. Yet discoveries are multiplying like fruit flies, and progress is dizzying.

Critics of new media sometimes use science itself to press their case, citing research that shows how “experience can change the brain”. But cognitive neuroscientists roll their eyes at such talk. Experience does not remake the basic information-processing capacities of the brain. Speed-reading programs have long claimed to do just that, but the verdict was rendered by Woody Allen after he read “War and Peace” in one sitting: “It was about Russia.”

Moreover, the effects of experience are highly specific to the experiences themselves. If you train people to do one thing, they get better at doing that thing, but almost nothing else. Music doesn’t make you better at math. Accomplished people immerse themselves in their fields. Novelists read lots of novels, scientists read lots of science.

The effects of consuming electronic media are also likely to be far more limited than the panic implies. Media critics write as if the brain takes on the qualities of whatever it consumes, the informational equivalent of “you are what you eat”. As with primitive peoples who believe that eating fierce animals will make them fierce, they assume that reading Twitter postings turns your thoughts into Twitter postings.

Yes, the continual arrival of information packets can be distracting or addictive. But distraction is not a new phenomenon. The solution is to develop strategies of self-control. Turn off Twitter when you work and put away your smartphone at dinner time.

And to encourage intellectual depth, don’t rail at PowerPoint or Google. It’s not as if habits of deep reflection or thorough research ever came naturally to people. They must be acquired in universities, and maintained with constant analysis, criticism and debate. They are not granted by propping a heavy encyclopedia on your lap, nor are they taken away by efficient access to information on the Internet.

The new media have caught on for a reason. Knowledge is increasing exponentially; human brainpower and waking hours are not. Fortunately, the Internet and information technologies are helping us manage and search our collective intellectual output at different scales, from Twitter to e-books and online encyclopedias. Far from making us stupid, these technologies are the only things that will keep us smart.

19.

Пре­об­ра­зуй­те, если это не­об­хо­ди­мо, слово BREAK так, чтобы оно грам­ма­ти­че­ски со­от­вет­ство­ва­ло со­дер­жа­нию тек­ста.

 

 

Two Friends

 

John Lennon and Paul McCartney were friends. But most people believe that after the Beatles ______ up in 1970, the friendship between them was over.

20.

Пре­об­ра­зуй­те, если это не­об­хо­ди­мо, слово MURDER так, чтобы оно грам­ма­ти­че­ски со­от­вет­ство­ва­ло со­дер­жа­нию тек­ста.

 

However, Paul has always maintained that he remained on good terms and that he still misses Lennon, who ______ tragically in 1980. What is even less well-known is that Paul and John played together again long after The Beatles had played their last song.

21.

Пре­об­ра­зуй­те, если это не­об­хо­ди­мо, слово RECORD так, чтобы оно грам­ма­ти­че­ски со­от­вет­ство­ва­ло со­дер­жа­нию тек­ста.

 

It happened in 1974. John ______ music in the studio when Paul turned up with his wife Linda. They sang classic rock-and-roll songs from the 1950’s. Some of it was recorded but the tapes are missing.

22.

Пре­об­ра­зуй­те, если это не­об­хо­ди­мо, слово INCLUDE так, чтобы оно грам­ма­ти­че­ски со­от­вет­ство­ва­ло со­дер­жа­нию тек­ста.

 

 

Dr Who

 

“Dr Who” is the longest running science fiction TV show in the world. It is broadcast in 42 countries around the world, ______ Russia, but it is in the UK that it has made the biggest impact.

23.

Пре­об­ра­зуй­те, если это не­об­хо­ди­мо, слово KNOW так, чтобы оно грам­ма­ти­че­ски со­от­вет­ство­ва­ло со­дер­жа­нию тек­ста.

 

Although the show is called “Dr Who” the hero ______ simply as “The Doctor”. He (there has never been a lady doctor) is a travelling “Time Lord” who constantly rescues planet earth from alien attack.

24.

Пре­об­ра­зуй­те, если это не­об­хо­ди­мо, слово WEAR так, чтобы оно грам­ма­ти­че­ски со­от­вет­ство­ва­ло со­дер­жа­нию тек­ста.

 

So far there have been 11 Doctors and each has made an impact on British style and fashion. Frock coats and cravats, stylish hats and over long scarves ______ by Time Lords and copied by teenagers.

25.

Пре­об­ра­зуй­те, если это не­об­хо­ди­мо, слово WOMAN так, чтобы оно грам­ма­ти­че­ски со­от­вет­ство­ва­ло со­дер­жа­нию тек­ста.

 

The Doctors have always been accompanied by glamorous young ______ assistants some of who also made their mark on fashion.

26.

Об­ра­зуй­те от слова ROME од­но­ко­рен­ное слово так, чтобы оно грам­ма­ти­че­ски и лек­си­че­ски со­от­вет­ство­ва­ло со­дер­жа­нию тек­ста.

English Heritage

 

English Heritage is a public body within the British Government that looks after historic sites. History is all around us — not just in museums, beautiful castles, stately homes or __________________ ruins.

27.

Об­ра­зуй­те от слова EXPECTED од­но­ко­рен­ное слово так, чтобы оно грам­ма­ти­че­ски и лек­си­че­ски со­от­вет­ство­ва­ло со­дер­жа­нию тек­ста.

 

You can find it in __________________ places too — an 18th century milestone that still points the way to the village or the dusty remains of an old factory can be just as important for a historian.

28.

Об­ра­зуй­те от слова ARCHAEOLOGY од­но­ко­рен­ное слово так, чтобы оно грам­ма­ти­че­ски и лек­си­че­ски со­от­вет­ство­ва­ло со­дер­жа­нию тек­ста.

 

Professional historians, __________________ and architects look at historic remains all over Britain and recommend how to protect them.

29.

Об­ра­зуй­те от слова FINANCE од­но­ко­рен­ное слово так, чтобы оно грам­ма­ти­че­ски и лек­си­че­ски со­от­вет­ство­ва­ло со­дер­жа­нию тек­ста.

 

They provide __________________ support to help maintain cathedrals and churches, gardens and battlefields, as well as to improve towns and cities.

30.

Об­ра­зуй­те от слова ACCESS од­но­ко­рен­ное слово так, чтобы оно грам­ма­ти­че­ски и лек­си­че­ски со­от­вет­ство­ва­ло со­дер­жа­нию тек­ста.

 

Their sites are __________________ to everyone.

31.

Об­ра­зуй­те от слова ABILITIES од­но­ко­рен­ное слово так, чтобы оно грам­ма­ти­че­ски и лек­си­че­ски со­от­вет­ство­ва­ло со­дер­жа­нию тек­ста.

 

All of them have well-stocked shops and cafes, as well as help for visitors with __________________.

32.

Вставь­те про­пу­щен­ное слово:

 

1) discuss

2) debate

3) quarrel

4) argue


The Best Breakfast in the World

The “Greasy Spoon” cafe on Arundel Road offers the best full English breakfast on the planet. Of course people 32 ______ about what “full English” should consist of but I think there is a small clue in the word “full”. This is a breakfast that knows no modesty. This is not a breakfast for those on a diet. It is the breakfast of Kings; it should be enjoyed 33 ______ leisure and last for the day.

 

That the “full English” (FE) contains both bacon and eggs is 34 ______ dispute. After this there are different schools of thought. Sausage, mushrooms, beans, black pudding, fried tomatoes and toast are often 35 ______ in different line ups and combinations competing for the best, all time classic FE. These are 36 ______ in different portions and styles and a decent breakfast is the almost guaranteed outcome. But an FE on Arundel Road beats all contenders for the best FE in the world because it includes ALL of these ingredients in 37 ______ quantities! They also serve hot toast on traditional toast racks with real butter. But best of all, each customer is served their own pot of traditional English tea (with tea cozy) which may be drunk with milk or cream. And all of this is offered for just £5 per person — and with a newspaper included! The Greasy Spoon is popular with working people and students alike. It opens early during the week for the lorry drivers and on Sunday mornings 38 ______ families come in and spend half the day there.

33.

Вставь­те про­пу­щен­ное слово:

 

1) for

2) at

3) on

4) in


The Best Breakfast in the World

The “Greasy Spoon” cafe on Arundel Road offers the best full English breakfast on the planet. Of course people 32 ______ about what “full English” should consist of but I think there is a small clue in the word “full”. This is a breakfast that knows no modesty. This is not a breakfast for those on a diet. It is the breakfast of Kings; it should be enjoyed 33 ______ leisure and last for the day.

 

That the “full English” (FE) contains both bacon and eggs is 34 ______ dispute. After this there are different schools of thought. Sausage, mushrooms, beans, black pudding, fried tomatoes and toast are often 35 ______ in different line ups and combinations competing for the best, all time classic FE. These are 36 ______ in different portions and styles and a decent breakfast is the almost guaranteed outcome. But an FE on Arundel Road beats all contenders for the best FE in the world because it includes ALL of these ingredients in 37 ______ quantities! They also serve hot toast on traditional toast racks with real butter. But best of all, each customer is served their own pot of traditional English tea (with tea cozy) which may be drunk with milk or cream. And all of this is offered for just £5 per person — and with a newspaper included! The Greasy Spoon is popular with working people and students alike. It opens early during the week for the lorry drivers and on Sunday mornings 38 ______ families come in and spend half the day there.

34.

Вставь­те про­пу­щен­ное слово:

 

1) beyond

2) behind

3) besides

4) below


The Best Breakfast in the World

The “Greasy Spoon” cafe on Arundel Road offers the best full English breakfast on the planet. Of course people 32 ______ about what “full English” should consist of but I think there is a small clue in the word “full”. This is a breakfast that knows no modesty. This is not a breakfast for those on a diet. It is the breakfast of Kings; it should be enjoyed 33 ______ leisure and last for the day.

 

That the “full English” (FE) contains both bacon and eggs is 34 ______ dispute. After this there are different schools of thought. Sausage, mushrooms, beans, black pudding, fried tomatoes and toast are often 35 ______ in different line ups and combinations competing for the best, all time classic FE. These are 36 ______ in different portions and styles and a decent breakfast is the almost guaranteed outcome. But an FE on Arundel Road beats all contenders for the best FE in the world because it includes ALL of these ingredients in 37 ______ quantities! They also serve hot toast on traditional toast racks with real butter. But best of all, each customer is served their own pot of traditional English tea (with tea cozy) which may be drunk with milk or cream. And all of this is offered for just £5 per person — and with a newspaper included! The Greasy Spoon is popular with working people and students alike. It opens early during the week for the lorry drivers and on Sunday mornings 38 ______ families come in and spend half the day there.

35.

Вставь­те про­пу­щен­ное слово:

 

1) contained

2) included

3) held

4) enclosed


The Best Breakfast in the World

The “Greasy Spoon” cafe on Arundel Road offers the best full English breakfast on the planet. Of course people 32 ______ about what “full English” should consist of but I think there is a small clue in the word “full”. This is a breakfast that knows no modesty. This is not a breakfast for those on a diet. It is the breakfast of Kings; it should be enjoyed 33 ______ leisure and last for the day.

 

That the “full English” (FE) contains both bacon and eggs is 34 ______ dispute. After this there are different schools of thought. Sausage, mushrooms, beans, black pudding, fried tomatoes and toast are often 35 ______ in different line ups and combinations competing for the best, all time classic FE. These are 36 ______ in different portions and styles and a decent breakfast is the almost guaranteed outcome. But an FE on Arundel Road beats all contenders for the best FE in the world because it includes ALL of these ingredients in 37 ______ quantities! They also serve hot toast on traditional toast racks with real butter. But best of all, each customer is served their own pot of traditional English tea (with tea cozy) which may be drunk with milk or cream. And all of this is offered for just £5 per person — and with a newspaper included! The Greasy Spoon is popular with working people and students alike. It opens early during the week for the lorry drivers and on Sunday mornings 38 ______ families come in and spend half the day there.

36.

Вставь­те про­пу­щен­ное слово:

 

1) suggested

2) advised

3) offered

4) intended


The Best Breakfast in the World

The “Greasy Spoon” cafe on Arundel Road offers the best full English breakfast on the planet. Of course people 32 ______ about what “full English” should consist of but I think there is a small clue in the word “full”. This is a breakfast that knows no modesty. This is not a breakfast for those on a diet. It is the breakfast of Kings; it should be enjoyed 33 ______ leisure and last for the day.

 

That the “full English” (FE) contains both bacon and eggs is 34 ______ dispute. After this there are different schools of thought. Sausage, mushrooms, beans, black pudding, fried tomatoes and toast are often 35 ______ in different line ups and combinations competing for the best, all time classic FE. These are 36 ______ in different portions and styles and a decent breakfast is the almost guaranteed outcome. But an FE on Arundel Road beats all contenders for the best FE in the world because it includes ALL of these ingredients in 37 ______ quantities! They also serve hot toast on traditional toast racks with real butter. But best of all, each customer is served their own pot of traditional English tea (with tea cozy) which may be drunk with milk or cream. And all of this is offered for just £5 per person — and with a newspaper included! The Greasy Spoon is popular with working people and students alike. It opens early during the week for the lorry drivers and on Sunday mornings 38 ______ families come in and spend half the day there.

37.

Вставь­те про­пу­щен­ное слово:

 

1) generous

2) rich

3) luxurious

4) multiple


The Best Breakfast in the World

The “Greasy Spoon” cafe on Arundel Road offers the best full English breakfast on the planet. Of course people 32 ______ about what “full English” should consist of but I think there is a small clue in the word “full”. This is a breakfast that knows no modesty. This is not a breakfast for those on a diet. It is the breakfast of Kings; it should be enjoyed 33 ______ leisure and last for the day.

 

That the “full English” (FE) contains both bacon and eggs is 34 ______ dispute. After this there are different schools of thought. Sausage, mushrooms, beans, black pudding, fried tomatoes and toast are often 35 ______ in different line ups and combinations competing for the best, all time classic FE. These are 36 ______ in different portions and styles and a decent breakfast is the almost guaranteed outcome. But an FE on Arundel Road beats all contenders for the best FE in the world because it includes ALL of these ingredients in 37 ______ quantities! They also serve hot toast on traditional toast racks with real butter. But best of all, each customer is served their own pot of traditional English tea (with tea cozy) which may be drunk with milk or cream. And all of this is offered for just £5 per person — and with a newspaper included! The Greasy Spoon is popular with working people and students alike. It opens early during the week for the lorry drivers and on Sunday mornings 38 ______ families come in and spend half the day there.

38.

Вставь­те про­пу­щен­ное слово:

 

1) full

2) complete

3) total

4) whole


The Best Breakfast in the World

The “Greasy Spoon” cafe on Arundel Road offers the best full English breakfast on the planet. Of course people 32 ______ about what “full English” should consist of but I think there is a small clue in the word “full”. This is a breakfast that knows no modesty. This is not a breakfast for those on a diet. It is the breakfast of Kings; it should be enjoyed 33 ______ leisure and last for the day.

 

That the “full English” (FE) contains both bacon and eggs is 34 ______ dispute. After this there are different schools of thought. Sausage, mushrooms, beans, black pudding, fried tomatoes and toast are often 35 ______ in different line ups and combinations competing for the best, all time classic FE. These are 36 ______ in different portions and styles and a decent breakfast is the almost guaranteed outcome. But an FE on Arundel Road beats all contenders for the best FE in the world because it includes ALL of these ingredients in 37 ______ quantities! They also serve hot toast on traditional toast racks with real butter. But best of all, each customer is served their own pot of traditional English tea (with tea cozy) which may be drunk with milk or cream. And all of this is offered for just £5 per person — and with a newspaper included! The Greasy Spoon is popular with working people and students alike. It opens early during the week for the lorry drivers and on Sunday mornings 38 ______ families come in and spend half the day there.

39.

You hаve received а letter from your English-speаking pen-friend Nаncy who writes:

 

… My brother worked as a volunteer during the 2012 Olympics in London. Who works in volunteer organizations in Russia? How often do they participate in the events of the volunteer organizations? What kind of volunteer activities would you or your friends like to take part in and why?

…Unfortunately, my mum has fallen ill…

 

Write а letter to Nаncy. In your letter аnswer her questions, аsk 3 questions аbout her mother's heаlth. Write 100–140 words. Remember the rules of letter writing.

40.

Вы­бе­ри­те толь­ко ОДНО из двух пред­ло­жен­ных вы­ска­зы­ва­ний и вы­ра­зи­те своё мне­ние по пред­ло­жен­ной про­бле­ме со­глас­но дан­но­му плану.

 

Comment on one of the following statements.

 

1. Some young people believe that while at school we should concentrate on studying; others think that working part-time has many advantages.

2. Reading fiction is becoming less and less important for teenagers.

 

What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement? Write 200–250 words. Use the following plan:

− make an introduction (state the problem)

− express your personal opinion and give 2–3 reasons for your opinion

− express an opposing opinion and give 1–2 reasons for this opposing opinion

− explain why you don’t agree with the opposing opinion

− make a conclusion restating your position

41.

Imagine that you are preparing a project with your friend. You have found some interesting material for the presentation and you want to read this text to your friend. You have 1.5 minutes to read the text silently, then be ready to read it out aloud. You will not have more than 1.5 minutes to read it.

 

The mystery of why trees don’t stop growing is still unsolved. Human beings usually stop growing sometime during their teens. Many animals reach full growth within a year. Others are fully grown in just a few years. Birds and insects also stop growing at a certain age. But trees keep growing as long as they live. Trees live, grow, and reproduce themselves by an amazing process. The thousands of leaves put forth by the tree breathe for it and manufacture its food. Its root system gathers minerals and vast quantities of water. To carry this water to the leaves, the tree is equipped with an intricate circulation system that extends upward from the millions of root hairs through the trunk and branches. The trunk holds the leaves up to the sunlight, sends them water from the roots, and gets food back from them. Then seeds are borne in flowers or cones.

42.

Study the advertisement.

 

 

You are considering staying one night at the hotel and you'd like to get more information. In 1.5 minutes you are to ask five direct questions to find out the following:

1) local museums and theatres

2) special offers

3) number of available rooms

4) quality of the staff

5) if they have TV in hotel rooms

You have 20 seconds to ask each question.

43.

These are photos from your photo album. Choose one photo to describe to your friend.

 

 

You will have to start speaking in 1.5 minutes and will speak for not more than 2 minutes (12–15 sentences). In your talk remember to speak about:

• where and when the photo was taken

• what/who is in the photo

• what is happening

• why you keep the photo in your album

• why you decided to show the picture to your friend

You have to talk continuously, starting with:

"I’ve chosen photo number… "

44.

Study the two photographs. In 1.5 minutes be ready to compare and contrast the photographs:

 

• give a brief description of the photos (action, location)

• say what the pictures have in common

• say in what way the pictures are different

• say what kind of transport presented on the photos you prefer

• explain why

 

You will speak for not more than 2 minutes (12–15 sentences). You have to talk continuously.