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Вариант № 983643

1.

Вы услышите 6 высказываний. Установите соответствие между высказываниями каждого говорящего A–F и утверждениями, данными в списке 1–7. Используйте каждое утверждение, обозначенное соответствующей цифрой, только один раз. В задании есть одно лишнее утверждение. Вы услышите запись дважды.

 

 

1. Writing Valentines has a very long history.

2. It’s another time to spend money.

3. Valentines make a big business.

4. There’s always something against the Day.

5. It’s a traditional Valentine’s Day present and no one should spare money for it.

6. Its traditions tend to fade.

7. Even journalists need information about Valentine’s Day.

 

ГоворящийABCDEF
Утверждение

2.

Вы услышите диалог. Определите, какие из приведённых утверждений А–G соответствуют содержанию текста (1 – True), какие не соответствуют (2 – False) и о чём в тексте не сказано, то есть на основании текста нельзя дать ни положительного, ни отрицательного ответа (3 – Not stated). Занесите номер выбранного Вами варианта ответа в таблицу. Вы услышите запись дважды.

 

 

A) Tom is unhappy about the Danish people being unfriendly.

B) Jack thinks that the character can be explained by the climate.

C) Tom believes that it’s only in Denmark that you can be insulted in public places.

D) Jack thinks that we should respect the rules of other cultures.

E) Tom wants to return to Denmark.

F) Jack claims that public transport in Denmark leaves much to be desired.

G) Tom comes from Denmark but lives in the USA.

 

Запишите в ответ цифры, расположив их в порядке, соответствующем буквам:

ABCDEFG
       

3.

 

What does Jessica say about the reaction to her new album?

 

1) Some people thought she’s shallow.

2) It was really upsetting for her.

3) She got more criticisms than compliments.

4.

 

What kind of person does Jessica appear to be?

 

1) Self-confident.

2) Modest.

3) Unhappy.

5.

 

What does Jessica say about her work on the lyrics?

 

1) She works on them in the studio.

2) She prefers to invite co-writers.

3) She usually works on them at the end.

6.

 

Jessica prefers the working process to be …

 

1) spontaneous.

2) creative.

3) regulated.

7.

 

What is Jessica’s attitude to live performances?

 

1) She rather likes them.

2) They scare her.

3) She prefers studio work to them.

8.

 

Which of the following is TRUE about Jessica’s London show?

 

1) She had expected a bigger crowd.

2) She was its main artist.

3) She played all the old hits there.

9.

 

What kind of shows does Jessica dislike?

 

1) Small shows.

2) Support shows.

3) Solo shows.

10.

Уста­но­ви­те со­от­вет­ствие между за­го­лов­ка­ми 1–8 и тек­ста­ми A–G. За­пи­ши­те свои от­ве­ты в таб­ли­цу. Ис­поль­зуй­те каж­дую цифру толь­ко один раз. В за­да­нии есть один лиш­ний за­го­ло­вок.

 

1. Recovery of a masterpiece

2. Return of the popularity

3. Dangerous when rare

4. Back and deep into the past

5. Return to the market

6. A happy comeback

7. From Eastern to Western culture

8. They come back in spring

 

A. The Mona Lisa, also known as La Giaconda, became world famous after it was stolen from the Louvre in 1911. The painting was missing for two years before police traced the theft to Italian painter, Vincenzo Peruggia, who stole the work to return it to its country of origin. The Louvre Museum in Paris built a separate room to house the Mona Lisa, giving up to five million visitors a year the chance to see the painting.

 

B. The tradition of telling stories with a series of sequential images has been a part of Japanese culture long before Superman comic strips. The earliest examples of pre-manga artwork that influenced the development of modern Japanese comics are commonly attributed to Toba Sojo, an 11th-century painter-priest with an odd sense of humor. Toba's animal paintings satirized life in the Buddhist priesthood by drawing priests as rabbits or monkeys engaged in silly activities.

 

C. When the story in which Holmes died was published in a popular magazine in 1893, the British reading public was outraged. More than 20,000 people canceled their subscriptions. The demand for Holmes stories was so great that Conan Doyle brought the great detective back to life by explaining that no one had actually seen Holmes go down the Reichenbach Falls. The public, glad to have new tales, bought the explanation.

 

D. Caviar refers to the salted eggs of the fish species, sturgeon. At the beginning of the 19th century, the United States was one of the greatest producers of caviar in the world. Because of overfishing, commercial sturgeon harvesting was banned. Today, mostly through farm-raised varieties, caviar production has returned in America. Some American caviar is very high in quality and has been compared favorably to wild Caspian caviar.

 

E. T.S. Eliot wrote in his poem, "The Waste Land," that April was the "cruelest month." He was living in England at the time, and the weather there can be dreadfully rainy and cold during spring. But from a cook's point of view, April is anything but cruel. The month brings us some of the freshest, most wonderful foods. Consider the first ripe strawberries, asparagus, artichokes, tiny peas, and so much more.

 

F. When the eruption of Vesuvius started on the morning of 24 August, 79 AD, it caught the local population completely unprepared. The catastrophic magnitude of the eruption was connected with the long period of inactivity that preceded it. The longer the intervals between one eruption and another, the greater the explosion will be. Luckily, the frequent but low-level activity of Vesuvius in recent centuries has relieved the build-up of pressure in the magma chamber.

 

G. Iron Age Britain can only be understood from the archaeological evidence. There are few spectacular ruins from Iron Age Britain. Unlike in Classical Greece or Ancient Egypt, in Iron Age Britain there was no construction of major cities, palaces, temples or pyramids. Rather, it was an essentially rural world of farms and villages, which had no economic or religious need to build palaces, cities, major tombs or ceremonial sites.

 

 

ТекстABCDEFG
За­го­ло­вок

11.

Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A–F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1–7. Одна из частей в списке 1–7 — лишняя. Занесите цифры, обозначающие соответствующие части предложений, в таблицу.

 

 

Friendship and Love

 

A strong friendship takes a significant amount of time to develop. It will not just magically mature overnight. A friendship involves committing oneself to help another person A ______ . I believe that, nothing can replace a true friend, not material objects, or money, and definitely not a boy.

I met this guy a couple summers ago who I ended up spending almost all of my free time with. His parents did not approve of our dating because of our age difference, В ______ . He had told me the day we met that he had joined the air force and would leave for overseas that coming October. After three months had past, the time came when he had to leave. This left me feeling completely alone.

I turned to my friends for support, but to my surprise, С ______ . I had spent so much time with this guy and so little time with them, that they did not feel sorry for me when he left. For so long they had become the only constant in my life, and I had taken them for granted over something D ______ .

When my boyfriend came back, our relationship changed. I tried to fix all the aspects in my life that had gone so wrong in the previous six months.

This experience taught me that true friendships will only survive if one puts forth effort to make them last. Keeping friends close will guarantee that E ______ . When a relationship falls apart, a friend will always do everything in their power to make everything less painful. As for me, I try to keep my friends as close as I can. I know they will always support me in whatever I do, and to them, I F ______ .

 

1. but we did anyway.

2. whenever a need arises.

3. they did not really care.

4. whenever they need your help.

5. could not guarantee would even last.

6. am eternally grateful'for a second chance.

7. someone will always have a shoulder to cry on.

 

ПропускABCDEF
Часть предложения

12.

The main object of the research was

 

1) the evolution of the human brain.

2) the comparison of human and primate brain.

3) the cues people pay attention to.

4) the human attention network.


The Unique Human Brain

The human brain is selective about the things it pays attention to. Our senses are constantly attacked by smells, colours, tastes, and sounds, and much of that information has to be filtered out, so we can focus on the important things that can keep us alive. But humans aren't the only animals who need to focus on certain signals to stay alive, so what sets us apart?

As it turns out, when humans and macaques focus on the same task their brains work differently, a small study published recently shows. The finding reveals that the human attention network probably expanded over time. And that's a pretty important piece of our evolutionary puzzle – especially given how often scientists use the macaque brain to study our own.

During the test the humans and the monkeys had to memorise a picture, like a green car, for instance. Then, they were told to fixate on a point in the centre of a computer screen. As the monkeys and the humans stared at the point, a stream of images appeared in various parts of the screen at a rate of about 10 objects per second. The goal was to push a button whenever they saw the green car appear.

The data captured during the test showed that the region of the human brain that plays a key role in redirecting attention doesn't have an equivalent in the macaque brain. The researchers also found that some brain areas were more active in humans than in macaques during this task. Finally, there was more communication between the two brain hemispheres in humans compared with the macaques – a finding that researchers think was surprising.

The increased communication doesn't necessarily mean that the way the human brain operates is better, however. Sharing information with other parts of the brain may reduce the speed of certain processes in humans. If that's the case, it may mean that being able to react quickly to a predator's approach, for instance, matters more for macaques. Humans, on the other hand, may have traded speed for some kind of cognitive flexibility.

These differences point to a larger message: humans seem to have developed an additional attention control network over evolutionary time. Contrasting both brains as they perform the same tasks is a good way of reconstructing the evolutionary forces that lead to these differences.

Humans are much more complex in the way they interact socially, so they need a better ability to single out those subtle cues and use that information to guide their future decisions than a macaque would. It's therefore possible that this additional network is used to detect behavioural information that macaques don't need. The study didn't look at social behaviours, however.

The most exciting finding is the fact that there is a clear sign that the human brain has some unique properties that separate it from other primates.

Yet, some scientists claim that the findings can't really discredit the use of the macaque brain model. They believe that here is a wealth of evidence that the macaque is an excellent model for attention research in general. Others point out that the data isn't very detailed.

For the researchers the study shows that there are some aspects of human cognition that we’ll just have to study in humans, instead of monkeys. They hope that this work will push scientists to try to learn more about the macaque brain. Focusing on that could reveal much about what the human brain has done to adapt to its own environment during the past 25 million years.

13.

During the test macaques and people did NOT have to

 

1) focus on the screen.

2) keep an image in memory.

3) fix an image on the screen.

4) identify an image.


The Unique Human Brain

The human brain is selective about the things it pays attention to. Our senses are constantly attacked by smells, colours, tastes, and sounds, and much of that information has to be filtered out, so we can focus on the important things that can keep us alive. But humans aren't the only animals who need to focus on certain signals to stay alive, so what sets us apart?

As it turns out, when humans and macaques focus on the same task their brains work differently, a small study published recently shows. The finding reveals that the human attention network probably expanded over time. And that's a pretty important piece of our evolutionary puzzle – especially given how often scientists use the macaque brain to study our own.

During the test the humans and the monkeys had to memorise a picture, like a green car, for instance. Then, they were told to fixate on a point in the centre of a computer screen. As the monkeys and the humans stared at the point, a stream of images appeared in various parts of the screen at a rate of about 10 objects per second. The goal was to push a button whenever they saw the green car appear.

The data captured during the test showed that the region of the human brain that plays a key role in redirecting attention doesn't have an equivalent in the macaque brain. The researchers also found that some brain areas were more active in humans than in macaques during this task. Finally, there was more communication between the two brain hemispheres in humans compared with the macaques – a finding that researchers think was surprising.

The increased communication doesn't necessarily mean that the way the human brain operates is better, however. Sharing information with other parts of the brain may reduce the speed of certain processes in humans. If that's the case, it may mean that being able to react quickly to a predator's approach, for instance, matters more for macaques. Humans, on the other hand, may have traded speed for some kind of cognitive flexibility.

These differences point to a larger message: humans seem to have developed an additional attention control network over evolutionary time. Contrasting both brains as they perform the same tasks is a good way of reconstructing the evolutionary forces that lead to these differences.

Humans are much more complex in the way they interact socially, so they need a better ability to single out those subtle cues and use that information to guide their future decisions than a macaque would. It's therefore possible that this additional network is used to detect behavioural information that macaques don't need. The study didn't look at social behaviours, however.

The most exciting finding is the fact that there is a clear sign that the human brain has some unique properties that separate it from other primates.

Yet, some scientists claim that the findings can't really discredit the use of the macaque brain model. They believe that here is a wealth of evidence that the macaque is an excellent model for attention research in general. Others point out that the data isn't very detailed.

For the researchers the study shows that there are some aspects of human cognition that we’ll just have to study in humans, instead of monkeys. They hope that this work will push scientists to try to learn more about the macaque brain. Focusing on that could reveal much about what the human brain has done to adapt to its own environment during the past 25 million years.

14.

The findings of the test revealed that

 

1) human and primate brains are similar.

2) parts of the human brain communicate faster.

3) the macaque brain can capture more data.

4) human communication is more intense.


The Unique Human Brain

The human brain is selective about the things it pays attention to. Our senses are constantly attacked by smells, colours, tastes, and sounds, and much of that information has to be filtered out, so we can focus on the important things that can keep us alive. But humans aren't the only animals who need to focus on certain signals to stay alive, so what sets us apart?

As it turns out, when humans and macaques focus on the same task their brains work differently, a small study published recently shows. The finding reveals that the human attention network probably expanded over time. And that's a pretty important piece of our evolutionary puzzle – especially given how often scientists use the macaque brain to study our own.

During the test the humans and the monkeys had to memorise a picture, like a green car, for instance. Then, they were told to fixate on a point in the centre of a computer screen. As the monkeys and the humans stared at the point, a stream of images appeared in various parts of the screen at a rate of about 10 objects per second. The goal was to push a button whenever they saw the green car appear.

The data captured during the test showed that the region of the human brain that plays a key role in redirecting attention doesn't have an equivalent in the macaque brain. The researchers also found that some brain areas were more active in humans than in macaques during this task. Finally, there was more communication between the two brain hemispheres in humans compared with the macaques – a finding that researchers think was surprising.

The increased communication doesn't necessarily mean that the way the human brain operates is better, however. Sharing information with other parts of the brain may reduce the speed of certain processes in humans. If that's the case, it may mean that being able to react quickly to a predator's approach, for instance, matters more for macaques. Humans, on the other hand, may have traded speed for some kind of cognitive flexibility.

These differences point to a larger message: humans seem to have developed an additional attention control network over evolutionary time. Contrasting both brains as they perform the same tasks is a good way of reconstructing the evolutionary forces that lead to these differences.

Humans are much more complex in the way they interact socially, so they need a better ability to single out those subtle cues and use that information to guide their future decisions than a macaque would. It's therefore possible that this additional network is used to detect behavioural information that macaques don't need. The study didn't look at social behaviours, however.

The most exciting finding is the fact that there is a clear sign that the human brain has some unique properties that separate it from other primates.

Yet, some scientists claim that the findings can't really discredit the use of the macaque brain model. They believe that here is a wealth of evidence that the macaque is an excellent model for attention research in general. Others point out that the data isn't very detailed.

For the researchers the study shows that there are some aspects of human cognition that we’ll just have to study in humans, instead of monkeys. They hope that this work will push scientists to try to learn more about the macaque brain. Focusing on that could reveal much about what the human brain has done to adapt to its own environment during the past 25 million years.

15.

According to the text increased communication may lead to

 

1) slower processes.

2) attention changes.

3) better reaction.

4) lack of focus.


The Unique Human Brain

The human brain is selective about the things it pays attention to. Our senses are constantly attacked by smells, colours, tastes, and sounds, and much of that information has to be filtered out, so we can focus on the important things that can keep us alive. But humans aren't the only animals who need to focus on certain signals to stay alive, so what sets us apart?

As it turns out, when humans and macaques focus on the same task their brains work differently, a small study published recently shows. The finding reveals that the human attention network probably expanded over time. And that's a pretty important piece of our evolutionary puzzle – especially given how often scientists use the macaque brain to study our own.

During the test the humans and the monkeys had to memorise a picture, like a green car, for instance. Then, they were told to fixate on a point in the centre of a computer screen. As the monkeys and the humans stared at the point, a stream of images appeared in various parts of the screen at a rate of about 10 objects per second. The goal was to push a button whenever they saw the green car appear.

The data captured during the test showed that the region of the human brain that plays a key role in redirecting attention doesn't have an equivalent in the macaque brain. The researchers also found that some brain areas were more active in humans than in macaques during this task. Finally, there was more communication between the two brain hemispheres in humans compared with the macaques – a finding that researchers think was surprising.

The increased communication doesn't necessarily mean that the way the human brain operates is better, however. Sharing information with other parts of the brain may reduce the speed of certain processes in humans. If that's the case, it may mean that being able to react quickly to a predator's approach, for instance, matters more for macaques. Humans, on the other hand, may have traded speed for some kind of cognitive flexibility.

These differences point to a larger message: humans seem to have developed an additional attention control network over evolutionary time. Contrasting both brains as they perform the same tasks is a good way of reconstructing the evolutionary forces that lead to these differences.

Humans are much more complex in the way they interact socially, so they need a better ability to single out those subtle cues and use that information to guide their future decisions than a macaque would. It's therefore possible that this additional network is used to detect behavioural information that macaques don't need. The study didn't look at social behaviours, however.

The most exciting finding is the fact that there is a clear sign that the human brain has some unique properties that separate it from other primates.

Yet, some scientists claim that the findings can't really discredit the use of the macaque brain model. They believe that here is a wealth of evidence that the macaque is an excellent model for attention research in general. Others point out that the data isn't very detailed.

For the researchers the study shows that there are some aspects of human cognition that we’ll just have to study in humans, instead of monkeys. They hope that this work will push scientists to try to learn more about the macaque brain. Focusing on that could reveal much about what the human brain has done to adapt to its own environment during the past 25 million years.

16.

The phrasal verb ‘traded for’ (‘…may have traded speed for) in Paragraph 5 probably means

 

1) transformed.

2) exchanged.

3) estimated.

4) changed.


The Unique Human Brain

The human brain is selective about the things it pays attention to. Our senses are constantly attacked by smells, colours, tastes, and sounds, and much of that information has to be filtered out, so we can focus on the important things that can keep us alive. But humans aren't the only animals who need to focus on certain signals to stay alive, so what sets us apart?

As it turns out, when humans and macaques focus on the same task their brains work differently, a small study published recently shows. The finding reveals that the human attention network probably expanded over time. And that's a pretty important piece of our evolutionary puzzle – especially given how often scientists use the macaque brain to study our own.

During the test the humans and the monkeys had to memorise a picture, like a green car, for instance. Then, they were told to fixate on a point in the centre of a computer screen. As the monkeys and the humans stared at the point, a stream of images appeared in various parts of the screen at a rate of about 10 objects per second. The goal was to push a button whenever they saw the green car appear.

The data captured during the test showed that the region of the human brain that plays a key role in redirecting attention doesn't have an equivalent in the macaque brain. The researchers also found that some brain areas were more active in humans than in macaques during this task. Finally, there was more communication between the two brain hemispheres in humans compared with the macaques – a finding that researchers think was surprising.

The increased communication doesn't necessarily mean that the way the human brain operates is better, however. Sharing information with other parts of the brain may reduce the speed of certain processes in humans. If that's the case, it may mean that being able to react quickly to a predator's approach, for instance, matters more for macaques. Humans, on the other hand, may have traded speed for some kind of cognitive flexibility.

These differences point to a larger message: humans seem to have developed an additional attention control network over evolutionary time. Contrasting both brains as they perform the same tasks is a good way of reconstructing the evolutionary forces that lead to these differences.

Humans are much more complex in the way they interact socially, so they need a better ability to single out those subtle cues and use that information to guide their future decisions than a macaque would. It's therefore possible that this additional network is used to detect behavioural information that macaques don't need. The study didn't look at social behaviours, however.

The most exciting finding is the fact that there is a clear sign that the human brain has some unique properties that separate it from other primates.

Yet, some scientists claim that the findings can't really discredit the use of the macaque brain model. They believe that here is a wealth of evidence that the macaque is an excellent model for attention research in general. Others point out that the data isn't very detailed.

For the researchers the study shows that there are some aspects of human cognition that we’ll just have to study in humans, instead of monkeys. They hope that this work will push scientists to try to learn more about the macaque brain. Focusing on that could reveal much about what the human brain has done to adapt to its own environment during the past 25 million years.

17.

According to the author, macaques did NOT develop an additional attention system because they

 

1) did not have behavioural information.

2) could not get subtle signals.

3) did not need behavioural information.

4) had no need to make decisions.


The Unique Human Brain

The human brain is selective about the things it pays attention to. Our senses are constantly attacked by smells, colours, tastes, and sounds, and much of that information has to be filtered out, so we can focus on the important things that can keep us alive. But humans aren't the only animals who need to focus on certain signals to stay alive, so what sets us apart?

As it turns out, when humans and macaques focus on the same task their brains work differently, a small study published recently shows. The finding reveals that the human attention network probably expanded over time. And that's a pretty important piece of our evolutionary puzzle – especially given how often scientists use the macaque brain to study our own.

During the test the humans and the monkeys had to memorise a picture, like a green car, for instance. Then, they were told to fixate on a point in the centre of a computer screen. As the monkeys and the humans stared at the point, a stream of images appeared in various parts of the screen at a rate of about 10 objects per second. The goal was to push a button whenever they saw the green car appear.

The data captured during the test showed that the region of the human brain that plays a key role in redirecting attention doesn't have an equivalent in the macaque brain. The researchers also found that some brain areas were more active in humans than in macaques during this task. Finally, there was more communication between the two brain hemispheres in humans compared with the macaques – a finding that researchers think was surprising.

The increased communication doesn't necessarily mean that the way the human brain operates is better, however. Sharing information with other parts of the brain may reduce the speed of certain processes in humans. If that's the case, it may mean that being able to react quickly to a predator's approach, for instance, matters more for macaques. Humans, on the other hand, may have traded speed for some kind of cognitive flexibility.

These differences point to a larger message: humans seem to have developed an additional attention control network over evolutionary time. Contrasting both brains as they perform the same tasks is a good way of reconstructing the evolutionary forces that lead to these differences.

Humans are much more complex in the way they interact socially, so they need a better ability to single out those subtle cues and use that information to guide their future decisions than a macaque would. It's therefore possible that this additional network is used to detect behavioural information that macaques don't need. The study didn't look at social behaviours, however.

The most exciting finding is the fact that there is a clear sign that the human brain has some unique properties that separate it from other primates.

Yet, some scientists claim that the findings can't really discredit the use of the macaque brain model. They believe that here is a wealth of evidence that the macaque is an excellent model for attention research in general. Others point out that the data isn't very detailed.

For the researchers the study shows that there are some aspects of human cognition that we’ll just have to study in humans, instead of monkeys. They hope that this work will push scientists to try to learn more about the macaque brain. Focusing on that could reveal much about what the human brain has done to adapt to its own environment during the past 25 million years.

18.

The researchers hope that the findings of the study may help to

 

1) change human brain research methods.

2) discover facts about human behaviour.

3) study environments for brain development.

4) study human adaptation processes.


The Unique Human Brain

The human brain is selective about the things it pays attention to. Our senses are constantly attacked by smells, colours, tastes, and sounds, and much of that information has to be filtered out, so we can focus on the important things that can keep us alive. But humans aren't the only animals who need to focus on certain signals to stay alive, so what sets us apart?

As it turns out, when humans and macaques focus on the same task their brains work differently, a small study published recently shows. The finding reveals that the human attention network probably expanded over time. And that's a pretty important piece of our evolutionary puzzle – especially given how often scientists use the macaque brain to study our own.

During the test the humans and the monkeys had to memorise a picture, like a green car, for instance. Then, they were told to fixate on a point in the centre of a computer screen. As the monkeys and the humans stared at the point, a stream of images appeared in various parts of the screen at a rate of about 10 objects per second. The goal was to push a button whenever they saw the green car appear.

The data captured during the test showed that the region of the human brain that plays a key role in redirecting attention doesn't have an equivalent in the macaque brain. The researchers also found that some brain areas were more active in humans than in macaques during this task. Finally, there was more communication between the two brain hemispheres in humans compared with the macaques – a finding that researchers think was surprising.

The increased communication doesn't necessarily mean that the way the human brain operates is better, however. Sharing information with other parts of the brain may reduce the speed of certain processes in humans. If that's the case, it may mean that being able to react quickly to a predator's approach, for instance, matters more for macaques. Humans, on the other hand, may have traded speed for some kind of cognitive flexibility.

These differences point to a larger message: humans seem to have developed an additional attention control network over evolutionary time. Contrasting both brains as they perform the same tasks is a good way of reconstructing the evolutionary forces that lead to these differences.

Humans are much more complex in the way they interact socially, so they need a better ability to single out those subtle cues and use that information to guide their future decisions than a macaque would. It's therefore possible that this additional network is used to detect behavioural information that macaques don't need. The study didn't look at social behaviours, however.

The most exciting finding is the fact that there is a clear sign that the human brain has some unique properties that separate it from other primates.

Yet, some scientists claim that the findings can't really discredit the use of the macaque brain model. They believe that here is a wealth of evidence that the macaque is an excellent model for attention research in general. Others point out that the data isn't very detailed.

For the researchers the study shows that there are some aspects of human cognition that we’ll just have to study in humans, instead of monkeys. They hope that this work will push scientists to try to learn more about the macaque brain. Focusing on that could reveal much about what the human brain has done to adapt to its own environment during the past 25 million years.

19.

Преобразуйте, если это необходимо, слово EDUCATE так, чтобы оно грамматически соответствовало содержанию текста.

 

Paul Anthony Samuelson, a Nobel Prize Winner in Economics

 

Paul Samuelson was born on May 15, 1915, in Gary, Indiana. He ______ at the University of Chicago in Illinois and at Harvard University.

20.

Преобразуйте, если это необходимо, слово WRITE так, чтобы оно грамматически соответствовало содержанию текста.

 

In 1947, Samuelson ______ “Foundations of Economic Analysis” in which he used the language of mathematics to explain the world of economics.

21.

Преобразуйте, если это необходимо, слово IMPORTANT так, чтобы оно грамматически соответствовало содержанию текста.

 

In 1948 he published “Economics” which is considered to be the ______ economics text of our time.

22.

Преобразуйте, если это необходимо, слово GIVE так, чтобы оно грамматически соответствовало содержанию текста.

 

Samuelson ______ the 1970 Nobel Prize in Economics for doing “more than any other contemporary economist to raise the level of scientific analysis in economic theory.”

23.

Преобразуйте, если это необходимо, слово GREAT так, чтобы оно грамматически соответствовало содержанию текста.

 

Samuelson says that he finds the ______ pleasure in solving problems of economics and it is the mathematical work.

24.

Преобразуйте, если это необходимо, слово DO так, чтобы оно грамматически соответствовало содержанию текста.

 

But while he ______ it, he thinks about the real-world problems.

25.

Преобразуйте, если это необходимо, слово DO так, чтобы оно грамматически соответствовало содержанию текста.

 

Samuelson’s life work has been to use economics in the service of humanity. He ______ more than anyone of his time to influence government policy at the highest level.

26.

Образуйте от слова CALCULATE однокоренное слово так, чтобы оно грамматически и лексически соответствовало содержанию текста.

 

 

Invention of Computer

 

Many encyclopedias say that the first computer was developed by Howard H. Aiken (and his team) in America between 1939 and 1944. It was a large-scale, programme-controlled machine which could make a very complex _____ .

27.

Образуйте от слова DISCOVER однокоренное слово так, чтобы оно грамматически и лексически соответствовало содержанию текста.

 

However, after World War II an important _____ was made that the first computer was, in fact, made in Germany in 1941 by Konrad Zuce.

28.

Образуйте от слова SCIENCE однокоренное слово так, чтобы оно грамматически и лексически соответствовало содержанию текста.

 

Later Konrad Zuce founded a company in order to build computers that could be used by an engineer or a _____ .

29.

Образуйте от слова SIMILAR однокоренное слово так, чтобы оно грамматически и лексически соответствовало содержанию текста.

 

Konrad Zuce also developed the first real programming language, which shows an amazing _____ to today’s most advanced computer languages.

30.

Образуйте от слова KNOWN однокоренное слово так, чтобы оно грамматически и лексически соответствовало содержанию текста.

 

Unfortunately, the role of this man, who was years ahead of his time, is still _____ to many people.

31.

Образуйте от слова POSSIBLE однокоренное слово так, чтобы оно грамматически и лексически соответствовало содержанию текста.

 

Maybe for the ‘official’ history of computers it is _____ to accept that Konrad Zuce was on the wrong side of World War II.

32.

Вставьте пропущенное слово:

 

1) Few

2) Much

3) Little

4) Many


Alexander

 

Sir Alexander Heathcote was an exact man. 32 ______ people were like him. He was exactly six feet three-and-a-quarter inches tall, rose at seven o'clock every morning, joined his wife at breakfast to eat one boiled egg cooked for precisely four minutes, two pieces of toast with one spoonful of Cooper's marmalade, and drink one cup of China tea. He used to take a carriage from his home in Cadogan Gardens at exactly 8:20 and 33 ______ at the Foreign Office at promptly 8:59, returning home again on the stroke of six o'clock.

 

Sir Alexander had been exact from an early age, as he was the only son of a general. But, unlike his father, he chose to serve his queen in the diplomatic service, another exacting calling. He 34 ______ in progressing from a shared desk at the Foreign Office in Whitehall to third secretary in Calcutta to minister in Peking. He was delighted when Mr. Gladstone 35 ______ the opportunity to represent the government in China. For some time he had been 36 ______ in the art of the Ming dynasty. This appointment would present him a perfect chance of 37 ______ in their natural habitat some of the great statues, paintings and drawings he had previously been able to admire only in books.

 

When he arrived in Beijing, Her Imperial Highness wished him a successful term of office in his appointment and then the audience 38 ______ to an end.

33.

Вставьте пропущенное слово:

 

1) reach

2) enter

3) arrive

4) come


Alexander

 

Sir Alexander Heathcote was an exact man. 32 ______ people were like him. He was exactly six feet three-and-a-quarter inches tall, rose at seven o'clock every morning, joined his wife at breakfast to eat one boiled egg cooked for precisely four minutes, two pieces of toast with one spoonful of Cooper's marmalade, and drink one cup of China tea. He used to take a carriage from his home in Cadogan Gardens at exactly 8:20 and 33 ______ at the Foreign Office at promptly 8:59, returning home again on the stroke of six o'clock.

 

Sir Alexander had been exact from an early age, as he was the only son of a general. But, unlike his father, he chose to serve his queen in the diplomatic service, another exacting calling. He 34 ______ in progressing from a shared desk at the Foreign Office in Whitehall to third secretary in Calcutta to minister in Peking. He was delighted when Mr. Gladstone 35 ______ the opportunity to represent the government in China. For some time he had been 36 ______ in the art of the Ming dynasty. This appointment would present him a perfect chance of 37 ______ in their natural habitat some of the great statues, paintings and drawings he had previously been able to admire only in books.

 

When he arrived in Beijing, Her Imperial Highness wished him a successful term of office in his appointment and then the audience 38 ______ to an end.

34.

Вставьте пропущенное слово:

 

1) fulfilled

2) achieved

3) managed

4) succeeded


Alexander

 

Sir Alexander Heathcote was an exact man. 32 ______ people were like him. He was exactly six feet three-and-a-quarter inches tall, rose at seven o'clock every morning, joined his wife at breakfast to eat one boiled egg cooked for precisely four minutes, two pieces of toast with one spoonful of Cooper's marmalade, and drink one cup of China tea. He used to take a carriage from his home in Cadogan Gardens at exactly 8:20 and 33 ______ at the Foreign Office at promptly 8:59, returning home again on the stroke of six o'clock.

 

Sir Alexander had been exact from an early age, as he was the only son of a general. But, unlike his father, he chose to serve his queen in the diplomatic service, another exacting calling. He 34 ______ in progressing from a shared desk at the Foreign Office in Whitehall to third secretary in Calcutta to minister in Peking. He was delighted when Mr. Gladstone 35 ______ the opportunity to represent the government in China. For some time he had been 36 ______ in the art of the Ming dynasty. This appointment would present him a perfect chance of 37 ______ in their natural habitat some of the great statues, paintings and drawings he had previously been able to admire only in books.

 

When he arrived in Beijing, Her Imperial Highness wished him a successful term of office in his appointment and then the audience 38 ______ to an end.

35.

Вставьте пропущенное слово:

 

1) approached

2) proposed

3) offered

4) suggested


Alexander

 

Sir Alexander Heathcote was an exact man. 32 ______ people were like him. He was exactly six feet three-and-a-quarter inches tall, rose at seven o'clock every morning, joined his wife at breakfast to eat one boiled egg cooked for precisely four minutes, two pieces of toast with one spoonful of Cooper's marmalade, and drink one cup of China tea. He used to take a carriage from his home in Cadogan Gardens at exactly 8:20 and 33 ______ at the Foreign Office at promptly 8:59, returning home again on the stroke of six o'clock.

 

Sir Alexander had been exact from an early age, as he was the only son of a general. But, unlike his father, he chose to serve his queen in the diplomatic service, another exacting calling. He 34 ______ in progressing from a shared desk at the Foreign Office in Whitehall to third secretary in Calcutta to minister in Peking. He was delighted when Mr. Gladstone 35 ______ the opportunity to represent the government in China. For some time he had been 36 ______ in the art of the Ming dynasty. This appointment would present him a perfect chance of 37 ______ in their natural habitat some of the great statues, paintings and drawings he had previously been able to admire only in books.

 

When he arrived in Beijing, Her Imperial Highness wished him a successful term of office in his appointment and then the audience 38 ______ to an end.

36.

Вставьте пропущенное слово:

 

1) fond

2) interested

3) involved

4) keen


Alexander

 

Sir Alexander Heathcote was an exact man. 32 ______ people were like him. He was exactly six feet three-and-a-quarter inches tall, rose at seven o'clock every morning, joined his wife at breakfast to eat one boiled egg cooked for precisely four minutes, two pieces of toast with one spoonful of Cooper's marmalade, and drink one cup of China tea. He used to take a carriage from his home in Cadogan Gardens at exactly 8:20 and 33 ______ at the Foreign Office at promptly 8:59, returning home again on the stroke of six o'clock.

 

Sir Alexander had been exact from an early age, as he was the only son of a general. But, unlike his father, he chose to serve his queen in the diplomatic service, another exacting calling. He 34 ______ in progressing from a shared desk at the Foreign Office in Whitehall to third secretary in Calcutta to minister in Peking. He was delighted when Mr. Gladstone 35 ______ the opportunity to represent the government in China. For some time he had been 36 ______ in the art of the Ming dynasty. This appointment would present him a perfect chance of 37 ______ in their natural habitat some of the great statues, paintings and drawings he had previously been able to admire only in books.

 

When he arrived in Beijing, Her Imperial Highness wished him a successful term of office in his appointment and then the audience 38 ______ to an end.

37.

Вставьте пропущенное слово:

 

1) remarking

2) observing

3) noticing

4) looking


Alexander

 

Sir Alexander Heathcote was an exact man. 32 ______ people were like him. He was exactly six feet three-and-a-quarter inches tall, rose at seven o'clock every morning, joined his wife at breakfast to eat one boiled egg cooked for precisely four minutes, two pieces of toast with one spoonful of Cooper's marmalade, and drink one cup of China tea. He used to take a carriage from his home in Cadogan Gardens at exactly 8:20 and 33 ______ at the Foreign Office at promptly 8:59, returning home again on the stroke of six o'clock.

 

Sir Alexander had been exact from an early age, as he was the only son of a general. But, unlike his father, he chose to serve his queen in the diplomatic service, another exacting calling. He 34 ______ in progressing from a shared desk at the Foreign Office in Whitehall to third secretary in Calcutta to minister in Peking. He was delighted when Mr. Gladstone 35 ______ the opportunity to represent the government in China. For some time he had been 36 ______ in the art of the Ming dynasty. This appointment would present him a perfect chance of 37 ______ in their natural habitat some of the great statues, paintings and drawings he had previously been able to admire only in books.

 

When he arrived in Beijing, Her Imperial Highness wished him a successful term of office in his appointment and then the audience 38 ______ to an end.

38.

Вставьте пропущенное слово:

 

1) came

2) brought

3) went

4) got


Alexander

 

Sir Alexander Heathcote was an exact man. 32 ______ people were like him. He was exactly six feet three-and-a-quarter inches tall, rose at seven o'clock every morning, joined his wife at breakfast to eat one boiled egg cooked for precisely four minutes, two pieces of toast with one spoonful of Cooper's marmalade, and drink one cup of China tea. He used to take a carriage from his home in Cadogan Gardens at exactly 8:20 and 33 ______ at the Foreign Office at promptly 8:59, returning home again on the stroke of six o'clock.

 

Sir Alexander had been exact from an early age, as he was the only son of a general. But, unlike his father, he chose to serve his queen in the diplomatic service, another exacting calling. He 34 ______ in progressing from a shared desk at the Foreign Office in Whitehall to third secretary in Calcutta to minister in Peking. He was delighted when Mr. Gladstone 35 ______ the opportunity to represent the government in China. For some time he had been 36 ______ in the art of the Ming dynasty. This appointment would present him a perfect chance of 37 ______ in their natural habitat some of the great statues, paintings and drawings he had previously been able to admire only in books.

 

When he arrived in Beijing, Her Imperial Highness wished him a successful term of office in his appointment and then the audience 38 ______ to an end.

39.

You have received a letter from your English-speaking pen-friend Jane who writes:

 

...I have just returned from our school volleyball competition. I played for my class team and we won! What sport competitions are held in your school, if any? How can you become a member of your school sport team? Is it an easy thing to do? What kind of sport sections can you attend at school or in town?

Oh, I have some more good news! My sister had a great birthday party yesterday!...

 

Write a letter to Jane. In your letter answer her questions, ask 3 questions about her sister’s birthday party. Write 100—140 words. Remember the rules of letter writing. You have 20 minutes to do this task.

40.

Выберите только ОДНО из двух предложенных высказываний и выразите своё мнение по предложенной проблеме согласно данному плану.

 

Comment on one of the following statements.

 

1. Nature is powerful enough to oppose any harmful human interference.

2. Friendship increases in visiting friends, but in visiting them seldom.

 

What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement? Write 200–250 words. Use the following plan:

− make an introduction (state the problem)

− express your personal opinion and give 2–3 reasons for your opinion

− express an opposing opinion and give 1–2 reasons for this opposing opinion

− explain why you don’t agree with the opposing opinion

− make a conclusion restating your position

41.

Imagine that you are preparing a project with your friend. You have found some interesting material for the presentation and you want to read this text to your friend. You have 1.5 minutes to read the text silently, then be ready to read it out aloud. You will not have more than 1.5 minutes to read it.

 

There is an established stereotype among foreigners that Russia is a country of eternal frost and snow-covered streets. This is all because for many years foreigners have been frightened by the phrase "Russian winter". But it's not all that simple, Russia is a vast country and the weather in different areas can be completely different. Russia consists of several continental zones. For example, in the north winters are long and harsh, in some places there is lots of snow and temperatures fall below -40 degrees Celsius . These winters are normal, not only in the northern regions of the country but even in the Far East. Summers in these areas don't even see three warm months out of the year.

The closer you get to the south the warmer the Russian climate gets. In the central part of the country summer becomes warm--even hot--which makes it possible for a good harvest of grain, fruit and vegetables. Winters here are not extremely cold and the average winter temperature does not fall below -15 degrees Celsius. By the way, in Russia the real warmth does not start until the middle of April. And only at the end of May does everything start to bloom and people go without their warm clothing.

42.

Study the advertisement.

 

 

You are considering visiting the coffee shop and you'd like to get more information. In 1.5 minutes you are to ask five direct questions to find out the following:

1) special offers

2) discounts for regular customers

3) most popular coffee

4) if they have a parking lot

5) free Wi-Fi

You have 20 seconds to ask each question.

43.

These are photos from your photo album. Choose one photo to describe to your friend.

 

 

You will have to start speaking in 1.5 minutes and will speak for not more than 2 minutes (12–15 sentences). In your talk remember to speak about:

 

• where and when the photo was taken

• what/who is in the photo

• what is happening

• why you keep the photo in your album

• why you decided to show the picture to your friend

 

You have to talk continuously, starting with: "I’ve chosen photo number … ".

44.

Study the two photographs. In 1.5 minutes be ready to compare and contrast the photographs:

 

• give a brief description of the photos (action, location)

• say what the pictures have in common

• say in what way the pictures are different

• say what kind of reading presented in the photos you'd prefer

• explain why

 

You will speak for not more than 2 minutes (12–15 sentences). You have to talk continuously.