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Вариант № 983637

1.

Вы услы­ши­те 6 вы­ска­зы­ва­ний. Уста­но­ви­те со­от­вет­ствие между вы­ска­зы­ва­ни­я­ми каж­до­го го­во­ря­ще­го A–F и утвер­жде­ни­я­ми, дан­ны­ми в спис­ке 1–7. Ис­поль­зуй­те каж­дое утвер­жде­ние, обо­зна­чен­ное со­от­вет­ству­ю­щей циф­рой, толь­ко один раз. В за­да­нии есть одно лиш­нее утвер­жде­ние. Вы услы­ши­те за­пись два­жды.

 

 

1. The speaker feels unhappy about changes in her/his former classmates.

2. The speaker thinks that uniforms give students a tidier look.

3. The speaker is unhappy with his rich classmates’ attitude to expensive gifts.

4. The speaker says that his school building is inconvenient because of its size.

5. The speaker says that students prefer casual clothes to school uniform.

6. The speaker thinks it depends on the person what type of school is better for her/him.

7. The speaker thinks private school gives better opportunities to study different subjects.

 

 

 

Го­во­ря­щийABCDEF
Утвер­жде­ние

2.

Вы услышите диалог. Определите, какие из приведённых утверждений А–G соответствуют содержанию текста (1 – True), какие не соответствуют (2 – False) и о чём в тексте не сказано, то есть на основании текста нельзя дать ни положительного, ни отрицательного ответа (3 – Not stated). Занесите номер выбранного Вами варианта ответа в таблицу. Вы услышите запись дважды.

 

 

A) Jerry does not want to travel to a crowded place this summer.

B) Jerry thinks that his last year journey to Paris was perfect.

C) Kate would prefer to go to a popular European tourist resort.

D) Jerry is going to swim in the sea in Egypt.

E) Jerry will take part in several archeological excavations held in Luxor.

F) Kate thinks that booking in advance is important.

G) Jerry has discovered that prices at the chosen five stars hotel are rather high.

 

Запишите в ответ цифры, расположив их в порядке, соответствующем буквам:

ABCDEFG
       

3.

Вы услышите репортаж дважды. Выберите правильный ответ 1, 2 или 3.

 

 

John has to use artificial fur because

 

1) it makes clothes look better.

2) It is less expensive than the real one.

3) his clients want to wear it.

4.

Вы услышите репортаж дважды. Выберите правильный ответ 1, 2 или 3.

 

 

Walking down Fifth Avenue one day, John realized that

 

1) a lot'of fur people wear was not artificial.

2) he could hardly see people wearing fur.

3) clothes with fur trim had gone out of fashion.

5.

Вы услышите репортаж дважды. Выберите правильный ответ 1, 2 или 3.

 

 

What does John do in his fight for cruelty-free fashion?

 

1) He accuses publicly the Scandinavian fur industry of killing animals for fur.

2) He encourages students to get away from real fur in their designs.

3) He supports designers who participate in cruelty- free design contests.

6.

Вы услышите репортаж дважды. Выберите правильный ответ 1, 2 или 3.

 

 

John thinks that the main reason why many designers still work with fur is because

 

1) it’s a good way to invest money.

2) people want to show off.

3) a lot of people are selfish and uncaring.

7.

Вы услышите репортаж дважды. Выберите правильный ответ 1, 2 или 3.

 

 

What does John mean comparing the fight against racism to that for cruelty-free fashion?

 

1) Fighting for justice always involves violence.

2) People’s outlook on different things changes gradually.

3) Both problems are equally important.

8.

Вы услышите репортаж дважды. Выберите правильный ответ 1, 2 или 3.

 

 

John thinks that it would be easier for him to become a vegetarian if

 

1) he had been raised in a family of vegetarians.

2) more vegetarian products were available.

3) he ate only chicken rather than red meat.

9.

Вы услышите репортаж дважды. Выберите правильный ответ 1, 2 или 3.

 

 

What is John going to do to protect animals from being killed for their fur?

 

1) He is going to persuade his clients not to buy fur clothes.

2) He is thinking of refusing to use artificial fur in his collections.

3) He is thinking of heading up some animal protection organization.

10.

Установите соответствие между заголовками 1–8 и текстами A–G. Запишите свои ответы в таблицу. Используйте каждую цифру только один раз. В задании есть один лишний заголовок.

 

1. Education: the Way to the Top

2. From Agony to Love

3. Teaching to Learn

4. Learning That Never Stops

5. Things Worth Learning

6. The Right Word Can Bring Changes

7. What My Father Taught Me

8. The Power of Numbers

 

A. Education has the power to transform a person’s life. I am the living example of this. When I was on the streets, I thought I was not good at anything but I wrote a poem, and it got published. I went back to school to learn. I have learned the benefit of research and reading, of debate and listening. One day soon a group of fresh-faced college students will call me professor.

 

B. Language has the capacity to change the world and the way we live in it. People are often afraid to call things by their direct names, use taboos not to notice dangerous tendencies. Freedom begins with naming things. This has to happen in spite of political climates, careers being won or lost, and the fear of being criticized. After Helen Caldicott used the word ‘nuclear arms race’ an anti-nuclear movement appeared.

 

C. I never wanted to be a teacher. Yet years later, I find myself teaching high school English. I consider my job to be one of the most important aspects of my life, still I do not teach for the love of teaching. I am a teacher because I love to learn, and I have come to realize that the best way to learn is to teach.

 

D. One day my sister and I got one and the same homework. My sister finished the task in 2 minutes and went off to play. But I could not do it, so I went into my sister’s room and quickly copied her work. But there was one small problem: my father caught me. He didn’t punish me, but explained that cheating makes people feel helpless. And then I was left feeling guilty for cheating.

 

E. Lifelong learning does not mean spending all my time reading. It is equally important to get the habit of asking such questions as ‘what don’t I know about this topic, or subject?’, ‘what can I learn from this moment or person?’, and ‘what more do I need to learn?’ regardless of where I am, who I am talking to, or what I am doing.

 

F. Math has always been something that I am good at. Mathematics attracts me because of its stability. It has logic; it is dependable and never changes. There might be some additions to the area of mathematics, but once mathematics is created, it is set in stone. We would not be able to check emails or play videogames without the computer solving complex algorithms.

 

G. When my high school English teacher asked us to read Shakespeare, I thought it was boring and too difficult. I agonized over the syntax — I had never read anything like this. But now I am a Shakespeare professor, and enjoy teaching Hamlet every semester. Each time I re-read the play, I find and learn something new for myself.

 

 

 

ТекстABCDEFG
Заголовок

11.

Прочитайте текст и заполните пропуски A–F частями предложений, обозначенными цифрами 1–7. Одна из частей в списке 1–7 — лишняя. Занесите цифры, обозначающие соответствующие части предложений, в таблицу.

 

 

Australia

 

Australia was the last great landmass to be discovered by the Europeans. The continent they eventually discovered had already been inhabited for tens of thousands of years.

Australia is an island continent A _______________________ is the result of gradual changes wrought over millions of years.

B _______________________, Australia is one of the most stable land masses, and for about 100 million years has been free of the forces that have given rise to huge mountain ranges elsewhere.

From the east coast a narrow, fertile strip merges into the greatly eroded Great Dividing Range, C _______________________.

The mountains are merely reminders of the mighty range, D _______________________. Only in the section straddling the New South Wales border with Victoria and in Tasmania, are they high enough to have winter snow.

West of the range of the country becomes increasingly flat and dry. The endless flatness is broken only by salt lakes, occasional mysterious protuberances and some mountains E _______________________. In places the scant vegetation is sufficient to allow some grazing. However, much of the Australian outback is a barren land of harsh stone deserts and dry lakes.

The extreme north of Australia, the Top End, is a tropical area within the monsoon belt. F _______________________, it comes in more or less one short, sharp burst. This has prevented the Top End from becoming seriously productive area.

 

1. that once stood here

2. that is almost continent long

3. whose property is situated to the north of Tasmania

4. whose landscape — much of bleak and inhospitable

5. whose beauty reminds of the MacDonald Ranges

6. Although its annual rainfall looks adequate on paper

7. Although there is still seismic activity in the eastern highland area

 

ПропускABCDEF
Часть предложения

12.

The fears of the users about the «millennium bug» were ...

 

1) overestimated.

2) suppressed.

3) unrealistic.

4) justified.


The Difference Engine: No more addresses

 

REMEMBER the panic over the "millennium bug", when computers everywhere were expected to go haywire on January 1st, 2000, thanks to the way a lot of old software used just two digits to represent the year instead of four? Doomsters predicted all sorts of errors in calculations involving dates when the clocks rolled over from 99 to 00. In the event, the millennium dawned without incident. That may have been because of the draconian preparations undertaken beforehand. Or perhaps, as many suspected, the problem was grossly exaggerated in the first place, as it often happens. Certainly, the computer industry made a packet out of all the panic-buying of new hardware and software in the months leading up to the new millennium. And who would blame them for this? Business is business.

 

Well, something similar is about to happen in the months ahead. This time, the issue concerns the exhaustion of Internet addresses — those four numbers ranging from 0 to 255 separated by dots that uniquely identify every device attached to the Internet. According to Hurricane Electric, an Internet backbone and services provider based in Fremont, California, the Internet will run out of bulk IP addresses sometime next week — given the rate addresses are currently being gobbled up.

 

The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) will then have doled out all its so-called "slash-eight" blocks of addresses to the five regional Internet registries around the world. In turn, the registries are expected to have allocated all their remaining addresses to local network operators by October at the latest. After that, any organization applying for new addresses will be told, "Sorry, none left".

 

The issue is real and has been a long time in the making. The Economist first warned about it ten years ago. The problem concerns the address space of the existing version of the Internet protocol (IPv4), which is only 32 bits wide. The total number of binary addresses possible with such an arrangement is 4.3 billion. Back in the 1980s, when the Internet connected just a couple of dozen research institutes in America, that seemed like a huge number. Besides, the Internet was thought at the time to be just a temporary network anyway.

 

But with the invention of the Web in 1990 came an explosion in popular demand. It was soon clear that it was only a matter of time before the Internet would exhaust its supply of addresses. Work on a replacement for IPv4 began in the early 1990s, with IPv6 finally being made available around 1998. By giving the new internet version an address space of 128 bits, the designers pretty well guaranteed that it would not run out of unique identifiers for decades, or even centuries, to come.

 

Two raised to the 128th power is an astronomical number. That will come in handy when the "Internet of things" becomes a reality. Already, some two billion people have access to the Internet. Add all the televisions, phones, cars and household appliances that are currently being given Internet access — plus, eventually, every book, pill case and item of inventory as well — and a world or two of addresses could easily be accounted for. And yet, the solution of any problem begins with its verbalization. We are forewarned and it means — forearmed.

13.

Which of the following was NOT the reason why the «millennium bug» didn't work?

 

1) The problem never existed.

2) The new hardware had been installed.

3) The manufacturers had improved software.

4) The users took necessary precautions.


The Difference Engine: No more addresses

 

REMEMBER the panic over the "millennium bug", when computers everywhere were expected to go haywire on January 1st, 2000, thanks to the way a lot of old software used just two digits to represent the year instead of four? Doomsters predicted all sorts of errors in calculations involving dates when the clocks rolled over from 99 to 00. In the event, the millennium dawned without incident. That may have been because of the draconian preparations undertaken beforehand. Or perhaps, as many suspected, the problem was grossly exaggerated in the first place, as it often happens. Certainly, the computer industry made a packet out of all the panic-buying of new hardware and software in the months leading up to the new millennium. And who would blame them for this? Business is business.

 

Well, something similar is about to happen in the months ahead. This time, the issue concerns the exhaustion of Internet addresses — those four numbers ranging from 0 to 255 separated by dots that uniquely identify every device attached to the Internet. According to Hurricane Electric, an Internet backbone and services provider based in Fremont, California, the Internet will run out of bulk IP addresses sometime next week — given the rate addresses are currently being gobbled up.

 

The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) will then have doled out all its so-called "slash-eight" blocks of addresses to the five regional Internet registries around the world. In turn, the registries are expected to have allocated all their remaining addresses to local network operators by October at the latest. After that, any organization applying for new addresses will be told, "Sorry, none left".

 

The issue is real and has been a long time in the making. The Economist first warned about it ten years ago. The problem concerns the address space of the existing version of the Internet protocol (IPv4), which is only 32 bits wide. The total number of binary addresses possible with such an arrangement is 4.3 billion. Back in the 1980s, when the Internet connected just a couple of dozen research institutes in America, that seemed like a huge number. Besides, the Internet was thought at the time to be just a temporary network anyway.

 

But with the invention of the Web in 1990 came an explosion in popular demand. It was soon clear that it was only a matter of time before the Internet would exhaust its supply of addresses. Work on a replacement for IPv4 began in the early 1990s, with IPv6 finally being made available around 1998. By giving the new internet version an address space of 128 bits, the designers pretty well guaranteed that it would not run out of unique identifiers for decades, or even centuries, to come.

 

Two raised to the 128th power is an astronomical number. That will come in handy when the "Internet of things" becomes a reality. Already, some two billion people have access to the Internet. Add all the televisions, phones, cars and household appliances that are currently being given Internet access — plus, eventually, every book, pill case and item of inventory as well — and a world or two of addresses could easily be accounted for. And yet, the solution of any problem begins with its verbalization. We are forewarned and it means — forearmed.

14.

The number of available IP addresses is limited by ...

 

1) the number of computers connected to the Internet.

2) the number of organizations applying.

3) address space of the Internet protocol.

4) the Internet protocol version.


The Difference Engine: No more addresses

 

REMEMBER the panic over the "millennium bug", when computers everywhere were expected to go haywire on January 1st, 2000, thanks to the way a lot of old software used just two digits to represent the year instead of four? Doomsters predicted all sorts of errors in calculations involving dates when the clocks rolled over from 99 to 00. In the event, the millennium dawned without incident. That may have been because of the draconian preparations undertaken beforehand. Or perhaps, as many suspected, the problem was grossly exaggerated in the first place, as it often happens. Certainly, the computer industry made a packet out of all the panic-buying of new hardware and software in the months leading up to the new millennium. And who would blame them for this? Business is business.

 

Well, something similar is about to happen in the months ahead. This time, the issue concerns the exhaustion of Internet addresses — those four numbers ranging from 0 to 255 separated by dots that uniquely identify every device attached to the Internet. According to Hurricane Electric, an Internet backbone and services provider based in Fremont, California, the Internet will run out of bulk IP addresses sometime next week — given the rate addresses are currently being gobbled up.

 

The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) will then have doled out all its so-called "slash-eight" blocks of addresses to the five regional Internet registries around the world. In turn, the registries are expected to have allocated all their remaining addresses to local network operators by October at the latest. After that, any organization applying for new addresses will be told, "Sorry, none left".

 

The issue is real and has been a long time in the making. The Economist first warned about it ten years ago. The problem concerns the address space of the existing version of the Internet protocol (IPv4), which is only 32 bits wide. The total number of binary addresses possible with such an arrangement is 4.3 billion. Back in the 1980s, when the Internet connected just a couple of dozen research institutes in America, that seemed like a huge number. Besides, the Internet was thought at the time to be just a temporary network anyway.

 

But with the invention of the Web in 1990 came an explosion in popular demand. It was soon clear that it was only a matter of time before the Internet would exhaust its supply of addresses. Work on a replacement for IPv4 began in the early 1990s, with IPv6 finally being made available around 1998. By giving the new internet version an address space of 128 bits, the designers pretty well guaranteed that it would not run out of unique identifiers for decades, or even centuries, to come.

 

Two raised to the 128th power is an astronomical number. That will come in handy when the "Internet of things" becomes a reality. Already, some two billion people have access to the Internet. Add all the televisions, phones, cars and household appliances that are currently being given Internet access — plus, eventually, every book, pill case and item of inventory as well — and a world or two of addresses could easily be accounted for. And yet, the solution of any problem begins with its verbalization. We are forewarned and it means — forearmed.

15.

The solution of the problem with the lack of IP addresses is to ...

 

1) add a temporary network.

2) speed up research.

3) improve the current Internet protocol.

4) restrict the number of users.


The Difference Engine: No more addresses

 

REMEMBER the panic over the "millennium bug", when computers everywhere were expected to go haywire on January 1st, 2000, thanks to the way a lot of old software used just two digits to represent the year instead of four? Doomsters predicted all sorts of errors in calculations involving dates when the clocks rolled over from 99 to 00. In the event, the millennium dawned without incident. That may have been because of the draconian preparations undertaken beforehand. Or perhaps, as many suspected, the problem was grossly exaggerated in the first place, as it often happens. Certainly, the computer industry made a packet out of all the panic-buying of new hardware and software in the months leading up to the new millennium. And who would blame them for this? Business is business.

 

Well, something similar is about to happen in the months ahead. This time, the issue concerns the exhaustion of Internet addresses — those four numbers ranging from 0 to 255 separated by dots that uniquely identify every device attached to the Internet. According to Hurricane Electric, an Internet backbone and services provider based in Fremont, California, the Internet will run out of bulk IP addresses sometime next week — given the rate addresses are currently being gobbled up.

 

The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) will then have doled out all its so-called "slash-eight" blocks of addresses to the five regional Internet registries around the world. In turn, the registries are expected to have allocated all their remaining addresses to local network operators by October at the latest. After that, any organization applying for new addresses will be told, "Sorry, none left".

 

The issue is real and has been a long time in the making. The Economist first warned about it ten years ago. The problem concerns the address space of the existing version of the Internet protocol (IPv4), which is only 32 bits wide. The total number of binary addresses possible with such an arrangement is 4.3 billion. Back in the 1980s, when the Internet connected just a couple of dozen research institutes in America, that seemed like a huge number. Besides, the Internet was thought at the time to be just a temporary network anyway.

 

But with the invention of the Web in 1990 came an explosion in popular demand. It was soon clear that it was only a matter of time before the Internet would exhaust its supply of addresses. Work on a replacement for IPv4 began in the early 1990s, with IPv6 finally being made available around 1998. By giving the new internet version an address space of 128 bits, the designers pretty well guaranteed that it would not run out of unique identifiers for decades, or even centuries, to come.

 

Two raised to the 128th power is an astronomical number. That will come in handy when the "Internet of things" becomes a reality. Already, some two billion people have access to the Internet. Add all the televisions, phones, cars and household appliances that are currently being given Internet access — plus, eventually, every book, pill case and item of inventory as well — and a world or two of addresses could easily be accounted for. And yet, the solution of any problem begins with its verbalization. We are forewarned and it means — forearmed.

16.

The existing version of the protocol was believed appropriate because ...

 

1) the addresses were not permanent.

2) another network was being developed.

3) the net was not popular.

4) no one expected the demand to grow.


The Difference Engine: No more addresses

 

REMEMBER the panic over the "millennium bug", when computers everywhere were expected to go haywire on January 1st, 2000, thanks to the way a lot of old software used just two digits to represent the year instead of four? Doomsters predicted all sorts of errors in calculations involving dates when the clocks rolled over from 99 to 00. In the event, the millennium dawned without incident. That may have been because of the draconian preparations undertaken beforehand. Or perhaps, as many suspected, the problem was grossly exaggerated in the first place, as it often happens. Certainly, the computer industry made a packet out of all the panic-buying of new hardware and software in the months leading up to the new millennium. And who would blame them for this? Business is business.

 

Well, something similar is about to happen in the months ahead. This time, the issue concerns the exhaustion of Internet addresses — those four numbers ranging from 0 to 255 separated by dots that uniquely identify every device attached to the Internet. According to Hurricane Electric, an Internet backbone and services provider based in Fremont, California, the Internet will run out of bulk IP addresses sometime next week — given the rate addresses are currently being gobbled up.

 

The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) will then have doled out all its so-called "slash-eight" blocks of addresses to the five regional Internet registries around the world. In turn, the registries are expected to have allocated all their remaining addresses to local network operators by October at the latest. After that, any organization applying for new addresses will be told, "Sorry, none left".

 

The issue is real and has been a long time in the making. The Economist first warned about it ten years ago. The problem concerns the address space of the existing version of the Internet protocol (IPv4), which is only 32 bits wide. The total number of binary addresses possible with such an arrangement is 4.3 billion. Back in the 1980s, when the Internet connected just a couple of dozen research institutes in America, that seemed like a huge number. Besides, the Internet was thought at the time to be just a temporary network anyway.

 

But with the invention of the Web in 1990 came an explosion in popular demand. It was soon clear that it was only a matter of time before the Internet would exhaust its supply of addresses. Work on a replacement for IPv4 began in the early 1990s, with IPv6 finally being made available around 1998. By giving the new internet version an address space of 128 bits, the designers pretty well guaranteed that it would not run out of unique identifiers for decades, or even centuries, to come.

 

Two raised to the 128th power is an astronomical number. That will come in handy when the "Internet of things" becomes a reality. Already, some two billion people have access to the Internet. Add all the televisions, phones, cars and household appliances that are currently being given Internet access — plus, eventually, every book, pill case and item of inventory as well — and a world or two of addresses could easily be accounted for. And yet, the solution of any problem begins with its verbalization. We are forewarned and it means — forearmed.

17.

The phrase «Internet of things» refers to ...

 

1) personal computers of the users.

2) things ordered through the Internet.

3) a new network replacing the current Internet.

4) appliances with access to the Web.


The Difference Engine: No more addresses

 

REMEMBER the panic over the "millennium bug", when computers everywhere were expected to go haywire on January 1st, 2000, thanks to the way a lot of old software used just two digits to represent the year instead of four? Doomsters predicted all sorts of errors in calculations involving dates when the clocks rolled over from 99 to 00. In the event, the millennium dawned without incident. That may have been because of the draconian preparations undertaken beforehand. Or perhaps, as many suspected, the problem was grossly exaggerated in the first place, as it often happens. Certainly, the computer industry made a packet out of all the panic-buying of new hardware and software in the months leading up to the new millennium. And who would blame them for this? Business is business.

 

Well, something similar is about to happen in the months ahead. This time, the issue concerns the exhaustion of Internet addresses — those four numbers ranging from 0 to 255 separated by dots that uniquely identify every device attached to the Internet. According to Hurricane Electric, an Internet backbone and services provider based in Fremont, California, the Internet will run out of bulk IP addresses sometime next week — given the rate addresses are currently being gobbled up.

 

The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) will then have doled out all its so-called "slash-eight" blocks of addresses to the five regional Internet registries around the world. In turn, the registries are expected to have allocated all their remaining addresses to local network operators by October at the latest. After that, any organization applying for new addresses will be told, "Sorry, none left".

 

The issue is real and has been a long time in the making. The Economist first warned about it ten years ago. The problem concerns the address space of the existing version of the Internet protocol (IPv4), which is only 32 bits wide. The total number of binary addresses possible with such an arrangement is 4.3 billion. Back in the 1980s, when the Internet connected just a couple of dozen research institutes in America, that seemed like a huge number. Besides, the Internet was thought at the time to be just a temporary network anyway.

 

But with the invention of the Web in 1990 came an explosion in popular demand. It was soon clear that it was only a matter of time before the Internet would exhaust its supply of addresses. Work on a replacement for IPv4 began in the early 1990s, with IPv6 finally being made available around 1998. By giving the new internet version an address space of 128 bits, the designers pretty well guaranteed that it would not run out of unique identifiers for decades, or even centuries, to come.

 

Two raised to the 128th power is an astronomical number. That will come in handy when the "Internet of things" becomes a reality. Already, some two billion people have access to the Internet. Add all the televisions, phones, cars and household appliances that are currently being given Internet access — plus, eventually, every book, pill case and item of inventory as well — and a world or two of addresses could easily be accounted for. And yet, the solution of any problem begins with its verbalization. We are forewarned and it means — forearmed.

18.

Speaking of the future of the world-wide web, the author appears to be

 

1) overexcited.

2) hopeful.

3) pessimistic.

4) doubtful.


The Difference Engine: No more addresses

 

REMEMBER the panic over the "millennium bug", when computers everywhere were expected to go haywire on January 1st, 2000, thanks to the way a lot of old software used just two digits to represent the year instead of four? Doomsters predicted all sorts of errors in calculations involving dates when the clocks rolled over from 99 to 00. In the event, the millennium dawned without incident. That may have been because of the draconian preparations undertaken beforehand. Or perhaps, as many suspected, the problem was grossly exaggerated in the first place, as it often happens. Certainly, the computer industry made a packet out of all the panic-buying of new hardware and software in the months leading up to the new millennium. And who would blame them for this? Business is business.

 

Well, something similar is about to happen in the months ahead. This time, the issue concerns the exhaustion of Internet addresses — those four numbers ranging from 0 to 255 separated by dots that uniquely identify every device attached to the Internet. According to Hurricane Electric, an Internet backbone and services provider based in Fremont, California, the Internet will run out of bulk IP addresses sometime next week — given the rate addresses are currently being gobbled up.

 

The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) will then have doled out all its so-called "slash-eight" blocks of addresses to the five regional Internet registries around the world. In turn, the registries are expected to have allocated all their remaining addresses to local network operators by October at the latest. After that, any organization applying for new addresses will be told, "Sorry, none left".

 

The issue is real and has been a long time in the making. The Economist first warned about it ten years ago. The problem concerns the address space of the existing version of the Internet protocol (IPv4), which is only 32 bits wide. The total number of binary addresses possible with such an arrangement is 4.3 billion. Back in the 1980s, when the Internet connected just a couple of dozen research institutes in America, that seemed like a huge number. Besides, the Internet was thought at the time to be just a temporary network anyway.

 

But with the invention of the Web in 1990 came an explosion in popular demand. It was soon clear that it was only a matter of time before the Internet would exhaust its supply of addresses. Work on a replacement for IPv4 began in the early 1990s, with IPv6 finally being made available around 1998. By giving the new internet version an address space of 128 bits, the designers pretty well guaranteed that it would not run out of unique identifiers for decades, or even centuries, to come.

 

Two raised to the 128th power is an astronomical number. That will come in handy when the "Internet of things" becomes a reality. Already, some two billion people have access to the Internet. Add all the televisions, phones, cars and household appliances that are currently being given Internet access — plus, eventually, every book, pill case and item of inventory as well — and a world or two of addresses could easily be accounted for. And yet, the solution of any problem begins with its verbalization. We are forewarned and it means — forearmed.

19.

Преобразуйте, если это необходимо, слово BE так, чтобы оно грамматически соответствовало содержанию текста.

 

Lambeth Palace

 

Lambeth Palace is a rare surviving example of a 13th century building. Built between 1207 and 1229, the palace __________________ the residence of the archbishops of Canterbury for almost 8 centuries now.

20.

Преобразуйте, если это необходимо, слово MAKE так, чтобы оно грамматически соответствовало содержанию текста.

 

Throughout those centuries, many successive occupants of Lambeth Palace __________________ numerous alterations to the building.

21.

Преобразуйте, если это необходимо, слово REBUILD так, чтобы оно грамматически соответствовало содержанию текста.

 

Most of the archbishops were consecrated in the little chapel. It __________________ almost entirely after World War Two.

22.

Преобразуйте, если это необходимо, слово THEY так, чтобы оно грамматически соответствовало содержанию текста.

 

Avalanche Horror

 

Avalanches, also known as snowslides, are not a rare occasion in the mountains. A British family had a lucky escape in the Alps when an avalanche missed _____________ by 20 metres.

23.

Преобразуйте, если это необходимо, слово DISCUSS так, чтобы оно грамматически соответствовало содержанию текста.

 

Dan and Sue Bright, with their children Billy and Jemma, ______________ their future plans, when they heard an

enormous roaring noise and tons of snow slid past. 'We all love skiing, and this is such a beautiful place. We come here every year,' said Dan Bright, 'and we

24.

Преобразуйте, если это необходимо, слово NOT EXPERIENCE так, чтобы оно грамматически соответствовало содержанию текста.

 

'We all love skiing, and this is such a beautiful place. We come here every year,' said Dan Bright, 'and we

__________________ anything like this before.'

25.

Преобразуйте, если это необходимо, слово COME так, чтобы оно грамматически соответствовало содержанию текста.

 

The family agreed that they _____________ back to the Alps to ski.

26.

Преобразуйте, если это необходимо, слово DOMINATE так, чтобы оно грамматически и лексически соответствовало содержанию текста.

 

2012 London Olympics

 

How has London 2012 changed the sporting map of the world? The United States won the highest number of gold medals and the most medals in total, with China dropping to second place on the medals table after unprecedented _____________ at their home Olympics in Beijing four years ago.

27.

Преобразуйте, если это необходимо, слово EXPECT так, чтобы оно грамматически и лексически соответствовало содержанию текста.

 

The third place for Great Britain exceeded all ____________.

28.

Преобразуйте, если это необходимо, слово SUCCESS так, чтобы оно грамматически и лексически соответствовало содержанию текста.

 

Previously, 2008 Beijing Olympics were considered the most _____________ for the British with only the fourth place.

29.

Преобразуйте, если это необходимо, слово WIN так, чтобы оно грамматически и лексически соответствовало содержанию текста.

 

In 2008, Russia took the third place. This year, Russia fell out of the top three ___________ for the first time since the end of the Soviet era.

30.

Преобразуйте, если это необходимо, слово COMPARATIVE так, чтобы оно грамматически и лексически соответствовало содержанию текста.

 

South Korea improved to the fifth, their best finish since hosting the Games in Seoul 24 years ago. For Australia it was a _____________ miserable Olympics, where it took the tenth place.

31.

Преобразуйте, если это необходимо, слово PERFORM так, чтобы оно грамматически и лексически соответствовало содержанию текста.

 

It was their worst _____________ in two decades.

32.

Вставьте пропущенное слово:

 

1) for

2) to

3) on

4) from


The Chameleon Stone

 

That morning Tanon, a young farmer’s boy, discovered a strange stone in the cattle shed. It felt cold 32 ______the touch. Well, not exactly cold, more cool and smooth. It was fashioned like no other stone that Tanon had ever seen. He was fascinated by it and it 33 ______ his gaze like a venomous snake did its prey, just before making its lethal strike. Yet there was no strike – just the beautiful curves of this most precious of objects. At least, Tanon presumed it was precious, but now he had a decision to 34 ______. Should he take it immediately to his master or could he hold 35 ______ to its smoothness for just a little longer? A clap of thunder broke his daydream and he turned his gaze heavenwards. Dark clouds were forming 36 ______ smoke billowing from an open fire and Tanon knew he had not much time before the rain came. He had to get the cattle inside before the full force of the storm came to bear down on the farm. 37 ______ as he was standing up, his prize started to change. Swirling mists and patterns drifted over its outer layer and a pale pulsing light seemed to throb from its core. Tanon 38 ______ in wonder – was this some sort of magical object?

33.

Вставьте пропущенное слово:

 

1) held

2) kept

3) took

4) grabbed


The Chameleon Stone

 

That morning Tanon, a young farmer’s boy, discovered a strange stone in the cattle shed. It felt cold 32 ______the touch. Well, not exactly cold, more cool and smooth. It was fashioned like no other stone that Tanon had ever seen. He was fascinated by it and it 33 ______ his gaze like a venomous snake did its prey, just before making its lethal strike. Yet there was no strike – just the beautiful curves of this most precious of objects. At least, Tanon presumed it was precious, but now he had a decision to 34 ______. Should he take it immediately to his master or could he hold 35 ______ to its smoothness for just a little longer? A clap of thunder broke his daydream and he turned his gaze heavenwards. Dark clouds were forming 36 ______ smoke billowing from an open fire and Tanon knew he had not much time before the rain came. He had to get the cattle inside before the full force of the storm came to bear down on the farm. 37 ______ as he was standing up, his prize started to change. Swirling mists and patterns drifted over its outer layer and a pale pulsing light seemed to throb from its core. Tanon 38 ______ in wonder – was this some sort of magical object?

34.

Вставьте пропущенное слово:

 

1) do

2) make

3) have

4) get


The Chameleon Stone

 

That morning Tanon, a young farmer’s boy, discovered a strange stone in the cattle shed. It felt cold 32 ______the touch. Well, not exactly cold, more cool and smooth. It was fashioned like no other stone that Tanon had ever seen. He was fascinated by it and it 33 ______ his gaze like a venomous snake did its prey, just before making its lethal strike. Yet there was no strike – just the beautiful curves of this most precious of objects. At least, Tanon presumed it was precious, but now he had a decision to 34 ______. Should he take it immediately to his master or could he hold 35 ______ to its smoothness for just a little longer? A clap of thunder broke his daydream and he turned his gaze heavenwards. Dark clouds were forming 36 ______ smoke billowing from an open fire and Tanon knew he had not much time before the rain came. He had to get the cattle inside before the full force of the storm came to bear down on the farm. 37 ______ as he was standing up, his prize started to change. Swirling mists and patterns drifted over its outer layer and a pale pulsing light seemed to throb from its core. Tanon 38 ______ in wonder – was this some sort of magical object?

35.

Вставьте пропущенное слово:

 

1) over

2) on

3) in

4) out


The Chameleon Stone

 

That morning Tanon, a young farmer’s boy, discovered a strange stone in the cattle shed. It felt cold 32 ______the touch. Well, not exactly cold, more cool and smooth. It was fashioned like no other stone that Tanon had ever seen. He was fascinated by it and it 33 ______ his gaze like a venomous snake did its prey, just before making its lethal strike. Yet there was no strike – just the beautiful curves of this most precious of objects. At least, Tanon presumed it was precious, but now he had a decision to 34 ______. Should he take it immediately to his master or could he hold 35 ______ to its smoothness for just a little longer? A clap of thunder broke his daydream and he turned his gaze heavenwards. Dark clouds were forming 36 ______ smoke billowing from an open fire and Tanon knew he had not much time before the rain came. He had to get the cattle inside before the full force of the storm came to bear down on the farm. 37 ______ as he was standing up, his prize started to change. Swirling mists and patterns drifted over its outer layer and a pale pulsing light seemed to throb from its core. Tanon 38 ______ in wonder – was this some sort of magical object?

36.

Вставьте пропущенное слово:

 

1) as

2) as if

3) like

4) alike


The Chameleon Stone

 

That morning Tanon, a young farmer’s boy, discovered a strange stone in the cattle shed. It felt cold 32 ______the touch. Well, not exactly cold, more cool and smooth. It was fashioned like no other stone that Tanon had ever seen. He was fascinated by it and it 33 ______ his gaze like a venomous snake did its prey, just before making its lethal strike. Yet there was no strike – just the beautiful curves of this most precious of objects. At least, Tanon presumed it was precious, but now he had a decision to 34 ______. Should he take it immediately to his master or could he hold 35 ______ to its smoothness for just a little longer? A clap of thunder broke his daydream and he turned his gaze heavenwards. Dark clouds were forming 36 ______ smoke billowing from an open fire and Tanon knew he had not much time before the rain came. He had to get the cattle inside before the full force of the storm came to bear down on the farm. 37 ______ as he was standing up, his prize started to change. Swirling mists and patterns drifted over its outer layer and a pale pulsing light seemed to throb from its core. Tanon 38 ______ in wonder – was this some sort of magical object?

37.

Вставьте пропущенное слово:

 

1) only

2) quite

3) almost

4) just


The Chameleon Stone

 

That morning Tanon, a young farmer’s boy, discovered a strange stone in the cattle shed. It felt cold 32 ______the touch. Well, not exactly cold, more cool and smooth. It was fashioned like no other stone that Tanon had ever seen. He was fascinated by it and it 33 ______ his gaze like a venomous snake did its prey, just before making its lethal strike. Yet there was no strike – just the beautiful curves of this most precious of objects. At least, Tanon presumed it was precious, but now he had a decision to 34 ______. Should he take it immediately to his master or could he hold 35 ______ to its smoothness for just a little longer? A clap of thunder broke his daydream and he turned his gaze heavenwards. Dark clouds were forming 36 ______ smoke billowing from an open fire and Tanon knew he had not much time before the rain came. He had to get the cattle inside before the full force of the storm came to bear down on the farm. 37 ______ as he was standing up, his prize started to change. Swirling mists and patterns drifted over its outer layer and a pale pulsing light seemed to throb from its core. Tanon 38 ______ in wonder – was this some sort of magical object?

38.

Вставьте пропущенное слово:

 

1) viewed

2) stared

3) glimpsed

4) saw


The Chameleon Stone

 

That morning Tanon, a young farmer’s boy, discovered a strange stone in the cattle shed. It felt cold 32 ______the touch. Well, not exactly cold, more cool and smooth. It was fashioned like no other stone that Tanon had ever seen. He was fascinated by it and it 33 ______ his gaze like a venomous snake did its prey, just before making its lethal strike. Yet there was no strike – just the beautiful curves of this most precious of objects. At least, Tanon presumed it was precious, but now he had a decision to 34 ______. Should he take it immediately to his master or could he hold 35 ______ to its smoothness for just a little longer? A clap of thunder broke his daydream and he turned his gaze heavenwards. Dark clouds were forming 36 ______ smoke billowing from an open fire and Tanon knew he had not much time before the rain came. He had to get the cattle inside before the full force of the storm came to bear down on the farm. 37 ______ as he was standing up, his prize started to change. Swirling mists and patterns drifted over its outer layer and a pale pulsing light seemed to throb from its core. Tanon 38 ______ in wonder – was this some sort of magical object?

39.

You have received a letter from your English-speaking pen friend Mary who writes

 

... Summer is coming and I want to look my best: healthy, energetic and physically fit. So I'm trying to eat plain, simply cooked natural food, have enough sleep at night and I have recently joined our local fitness club. Do you do anything special to stay healthy? What makes people healthy and strong? What do you think about a healthy lifestyle?

By the way, I'm going to spend a month at the seaside this summer...

 

Write a letter to Mary. In your letter answer her questions, ask 3 questions about her coming summer holidays. Write 100-140 words. Remember the rules of letter writing.

40.

Выберите только ОДНО из двух предложенных высказываний и выразите своё мнение по предложенной проблеме согласно данному плану.

 

Comment on one of the following statements.

1. Some people think boys and girls should study separately at different schools. Others think that they should be taught together.

2. In any occupation discipline is more important than talent.

 

What is your opinion? Do you agree with this statement? Write 200–250 words. Use the following plan:

− make an introduction (state the problem)

− express your personal opinion and give 2–3 reasons for your opinion

− express an opposing opinion and give 1–2 reasons for this opposing opinion

− explain why you don’t agree with the opposing opinion

− make a conclusion restating your position

41.

Imagine that you are preparing a project with your friend. You have found some interesting material for the presentation and you want to read this text to your friend. You have 1.5 minutes to read the text silently, then be ready to read it out aloud. You will not have more than 1.5 minutes to read it.

 

Antarctica is the driest place on Earth. Parts of the continent have seen no rain for two million years. A desert is technically defined as a place that receives less than 10 inches of rain a year. The Sahara gets just 1 inch of rain a year.

As well as the driest place on Earth, Antarctica can also claim to be the wettest and the windiest. Seventy percent of the world’s fresh water is found there in the form of ice, and its wind speeds are the fastest ever recorded. The unique conditions in the Dry Valleys of Antarctica are caused by so-called katabatic winds. These occur when cold, dense air is pulled downhill simply by the force of gravity. Though Antarctica is a desert, these completely dry parts of it are called, somewhat ironically, oases. They are so similar to conditions on Mars that NASA used them to test the Viking mission.

42.

Study the advertisement.

 

 

You are considering visiting the fitness club and you'd like to get more information. In 1.5 minutes you are to ask five direct questions to find out the following:

1) membership card

2) personal trainings

3) working hours

4) if they have muscle gain programs

5) guest passes

You have 20 seconds to ask each question.

43.

These are photos from your photo album. Choose one photo to describe to your friend.

 

 

You will have to start speaking in 1.5 minutes and will speak for not more than 2 minutes (12–15 sentences). In your talk remember to speak about:

 

• where and when the photo was taken

• what/who is in the photo

• what is happening

• why you keep the photo in your album

• why you decided to show the picture to your friend

 

You have to talk continuously, starting with: "I’ve chosen photo number … ".

44.

Study the two photographs. In 1.5 minutes be ready to compare and contrast the photographs:

 

• give a brief description of the photos (action, location)

• say what the pictures have in common

• say in what way the pictures are different

• say which kind of activities presented in the photos you'd like to do

• explain why

 

You will speak for not more than 2 minutes (12–15 sentences). You have to talk continuously.